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Utah's Foremost Platform for Undergraduate Research Presentation

2018 Abstracts

January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
The Brian Head fire, which began due to human action in June 2017, quickly wreaked havoc in the western corner of the Dixie National forest. It covered roughly 72,000 acres of land1. The full impact of the fire has yet to be discovered, but there is an urgent necessity to evaluate the drastic changes to the ecosystem. In this study, we aim to look into variations in water chemistry of two streams crossing the Brian Head burn scar. We will conduct weekly monitoring of the pH, dissolved oxygen, water velocity, temperature, and turbidity. Our two sites are located on along the Second Left Hand Road, in Middle Creek and Parowan Creek. Our goal is to evaluate how the fire affects these streams not only through ash deposits but flooding and erosion as well. Water velocity and turbidity will be more reflective of punctual episodes of flash flooding that have occurred on multiple occasions in the Parowan area since the fire. We can see that the road and the stream banks have already been significantly altered, our study will allow us to have a deeper understanding of how the fire affected the area and its ecosystem. Future studies will include and biological assessment through the invertebrate community of the streams. 1 (2017, June 18). Brian Head Fire. InciWeb. Retrieved from www.inciweb.nwcg.gov
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
Hotel managers have a long hoped to increase employee retention, productivity, performance, and guest satisfaction, and to decrease the employee turnover through a better understanding of their motivations and attitude toward the hotel. Even the employee turnover is considered to be a major critical factor and problem to the operators and employees themselves as well, there is little to no research examining its causes/factors on an employee’s decision to stay or leave. The hospitality management should analyze its organizational workforces in the context of housekeeper’s job satisfaction and its relationship with the job performance and cultural diversity since cultural diversity in the hospitality industry abounds in a housekeeping department. The objectives of our research project is to determine the factors addressing this deficiency by testing a causal model of employee’s intent to leave and to determine the major contributing work environmental factors toward to their employees decision to stay or leave using a sample from the lodging industry in Utah. A content model of 12 attributes (i.e., job satisfaction factors, rewards, organizational workforces, position level, and racial-ethnicity, etc.) is developed and augmented in the context of previous studies. A survey instrument and questionnaire are developed and translated in Spanish as well since the major housekeepers are Hispanic background. The survey form will be distributed to housekeeping department employees in the hotels in Utah. Respondents are asked on the survey to indicate the overall rating on 12 attributes. Ratings are made on a 5-point Likert Scale. Factor analysis is to be performed to determine and analyze the structure of the correlations among a number of retention factors (variables) by defining a set of common underlying dimensions. Discriminant analysis is applied since one of the research objectives is to determine whether the employees are willing to stay or not (categorical dependent variables). Structural equation model (SEM) is introduced to accommodate multiple interrelated dependence (i.e., retention factors) relationships in a single model (i.e., job turnover). This research and its results will provide empirical evidence that organizational workforce improves job satisfaction and will play an important role in quality and productivity to the racial-ethnicity work environment. In addition, the hospitality management should consider how effective retention management strategies and workforces influence the racial and cultural diversity demographics as they play very important roles in the service oriented industry and their attitudes and behavior may not be in parallel with the traditional organizational culture.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
Katherine Safsten, Brigham Young University Through ethnographic research on how the schools are changing the lives of the Himba tribe in northern Namibia, I argue that primary and high school education does not always provide an even playing field for the students to move on to a desired carreer, whether or not it involves a university education. Throughout my research, I found that multiple factors come into play in a child’s education, and in Otutati, Namibia, these are not addressed; thus, the likelihood of academic failure increases for each child. These factors include parental involvement, school infrastructure, classroom methods the use of English in school (although the Himba speak Otjiherero), and the physical location of the schools. Perhaps the biggest factor comes from the value Himba give to education. In Otutati, many parents have the expectation that children go to school for the purpose of bringing money home in order to take care of them; however, some parents fear that their children will not return home to help them and begin to view education as criticism of their traditions that threatens to take their children away from Otutati. While in Namibia, I conducted interviews with students, parents, teachers, and community members, learning about the motivations for schooling and what sort of value is given education. I spent 20 hours observing classrooms in both the primary and secondary schools. The conflict between the values imposed by “western-style” education and Himba values goes beyond the schoolhouse. I found it to be a pervasive source of suspicion and inequity. For example, if a Himba graduate earns a money, thus maintaining career, many outside his or her family become jealous. As I interviewed many young people, I learned that not only is it difficult to graduate, but also that many older students fear to obtain too much of an education for fear of jealousy and cursing from other community members. The lack of value for education has created a community environment in which children find it difficult to succeed. Their school system has not accommodated to create a feasible learning environment, thus setting children up for failure, especially relative to the urban population of Namibia.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
The Passive Inspection Cube Satellites (PICs) are a pair of visible light imaging satellites intended for inspecting the exterior of spacecraft. A major part of the design of these 1U (10x10x10 cm) CubeSats is designing and integrating a 360x180 degree multi-camera imaging system. Many system level requirements and performance measures are affected by the choice of cameras, and a thorough study was conducted to make the selection. This process required multidisciplinary interaction between the mechanical, optical, power, and computer engineering students involved in the project. The analysis concluded that commercial availability, simplicity of electrical integration, lower power draw and small size are the key factors for selecting the PIC camera system. Based on these requirements, two camera models were selected and preliminary evaluations completed; only one camera model passed the evaluation. A design was developed for integrating six of the selected cameras into the PIC computer processing and mechanical subsystems. Implementing this interface to the cameras proved as challenging as selecting the camera model. After completion, the imaging subsystem underwent testing to meet timing and image quality specifications and was integrated into the remaining satellite subsystems. System testing is ongoing and is validating the camera system. The lessons learned from completing this design will be passed forward to future generations of student satellite projects. Launch of the satellite will occur in Spring of 2018 and mission operations will continue through 2018.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
Classifying internet traffic as various applications is an important security measure in many network settings. This practice can aid in detecting intrusion and other anomalies, as well as identifying misuse associated with prohibited applications. This can be particularly relevant for networks utilized by universities, industrial enterprises, governments, and other organizations. Many efforts have been expended to create models for classifying internet traffic using machine learning techniques. While research so far has proven useful, most studies have focused on supervised machine learning techniques that require explicit application labels, which must be designated by hand, requiring significant effort. In addition, previous studies have focused largely on known application traffic (e.g., HTTP on port 80), and some have focused only on particular transport layer traffic (e.g., TCP traffic only). In contrast, unknown traffic is much more difficult to classify and can appear as previously unseen applications or established applications exhibiting abnormal behavior. In this work, we present methods to address these gaps in other research. Using a large amount of unfiltered, unlabeled, and realistic data gathered from a universty campus network, we utilize unsupervised machine learning techniques, such as Gaussian mixture models, for identifying and classifying unknown application traffic. Gaussian models are particularly useful in creating clusters represented by Gaussian distributions, which are then used in conjunction with Kullback-Leibler divergence methods to help compare and contrast unknown traffic flows with other application clusters. Traffic flow data is analyzed as described using information about source and destination port numbers and IP addresses, transport layer protocol type, and overall packet and byte counts. Expected results are to be able to distinguish with high-probability between never before seen applications, well-known applications with typical behavior, and known applications that have non-typical behavior.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
Recent outcrop observations have revealed a large mud diapir that measures roughly 90 meters in diameter in the Wilkins Peak Member of the Green River Formation of southwest Wyoming. The diapir is exposed within outcrop of the younger Laney Member of the Green River Formation, locally deforming sands within the Laney Member around the margins. Continued analysis of satellite images revealed the existence of a second, smaller diapir 3.9 kilometers to the east. Mud diapirs and soft sediment deformation structures are common within the Green River Formation, and have been attributed by others to paleoseismic events, but are typically much smaller in scale. Within the diapirs, deformed but well-preserved bedding is common in much of the surface exposure, while other portions of the diapir are characterized by large, matrix supported, angular carbonate clasts. In both expressions, strata are dominated by thinly bedded dolomicrictic mudstones with common siliceous diagenetic veins based on XRF analysis and thin section evaluation. Along the margin of the diapirs, intra-diapiric strata are dominated by highly brecciated facies, suggesting stress was differentially concentrated along the margins of the diapir. Syntectonically deformed, coarse-grained sandstones bordering much of the larger diapir change dip from up to 50o at the interface with the diapir to near-horizontal, regional dip within 30 meters of the contact. This syndepositional, halokinetic deformation of channelized sands, along with the coherency of beds within the diapir and the similar ages of the diapir and host rock strata, indicates that diapirism occurred very soon after deposition of the Wilkins Peak Member. This suggests that this could be a larger sedimentary expression of a hypothesized paleoseismic event responsible for dewatering and deforming Green River strata in the region.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
The Great Salt Lake (GSL) in Utah is one of the largest hypersaline lakes in the world, and is used by millions of migrating birds each year. The GSL also has some of the highest concentrations of mercury (Hg), which is a neurotoxin, of any natural water body globally. The south arm (SA) of the GSL perennially had a stratified water column, consisting of a lower salinity upper brine layer (UBL) and a higher salinity, anoxic deep brine layer (DBL). The highest concentrations of Hg in the GSL are found in the DBL, which is formed by the flow of denser, higher salinity water from the north arm (NA) into the SA, where it sinks and does not mix with the UBL. The closure of culverts in 2013 prevented this flow of water, which eventually resulted in the DBL vanishing. A new bridge built in 2016 has recently allowed for water to again flow from the NA to the SA, creating conditions needed for the reestablishment of the DBL. To evaluate the effect of the disappearance and reformation of the DBL on Hg cycling in the GSL, we measured total mercury (HgT) in filtered and unfiltered surface and deep waters at 6 sites monthly in 2017. We observed stratification of the SA in spring due to freshwater inputs associated with spring runoff, followed by wind driven mixing. In mid-summer this was followed by re-stratification when the DBL began to reform due to inflows of denser NA water. Concentrations of HgT in unfiltered surface waters decreased during the spring and summer, while HgT in filtered surface waters did not change in the spring and increased during the summer. HgT concentrations in deep waters were notably lower than before 2014 prior to the disappearance of the DBL. Elevated HgT in deep waters were measured at multiple sites during dates when depth profiles of dissolved oxygen and salinity provided evidence of water column stratification and reformation of the DBL. HgT concentrations in deep waters increased during the late summer at more northern sites, coincident with increased salinity and decreased oxygen at depth, indicative of the reformation of the DBL. Such conditions were not measured in the southern sites, where concentrations of HgT in deep waters remained low. Our results document the beginning stages of the reformation of the DBL and the influence this has on HgT levels in the lake.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
Honey bees play an important role in agriculture and the decline of honey bee populations worldwide has generated concern. While the application of pesticides in agricultural settings is often implicated in the deterioration of honey bee population health, pesticide applications contain more than just pesticides; they also contain adjuvants that may have detrimental effects to bee health. One known effect of these adjuvants is the increase of viral load in larvae exposed to OSS. We investigate the effects of one class of inert pesticide adjuvant, organosilicone surfactants (OSS), on adult honey bee health. In a laboratory based bioassay, adult honey bees were fed various concentrations of an OSS (Xiameter® OFX-0309), alone and with a pesticide (Alticor®) and a fungicide (Tilt®). While survival of the bees was not affected by feeding regimes, bees ate significantly less diet on average if they were fed OSS at certain concentrations—indicating that bees that are exposed to these chemicals may suffer due to low food consumption. We then extracted RNA from the bioassay bees to determine viral profiles in bees from each feeding treatment. We used a strand-specific RNA library prep kit and subsequent sequencing to determine the identity of viruses present in the adult honey bees as well as the degree of their replication.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
Abstract Is there a gender wage gap among faculty at Southern Utah University? We have all heard talks and read articles about the gender pay gap in different nations. We all know that gender pay gap exists and people spend hours and hours talking about it every day on the news, in class, or even among friends. For this reason, I have decided to see if there is a gender pay gap among the professors in my university. This will hopefully open a dialogue among the students and faculty at SUU on gender pay gap; and if the results show that there is a gender pay gap see what explains it or can be done about it. The data that I used for this study comes from the SUU website where the salary, education, and position of faculty members can be found. Holding for years of education, age, position, gender, and department women seem to earn less than men. Given that the results show a difference in wages I will then estimate a bias to try to explain why women earn less than men.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
Economists have been studying economic growth since the 19th century, when National Accounts were first used to track country output statistics. Since then, governments interested in the welfare of their citizens and relative strength of their economy have tracked important economic indicators, such as total national output or Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to see how their output and economy have changed over time. The astonishing number and variety of models created by economists to explain economic growth has led to many different “schools” of thought, each making different assumptions about the way the economy works. While these contributions have been useful for researchers in the same “school,” they tend to ignore the contributions of researchers in other schools who are trying to measure the same phenomena. It behooves us, therefore, to find ways to reconcile and combine these theories to get a better, more inclusive understanding of economic growth. My research contributes to the knowledge already created by other researchers by combining two of the fundamental theories for economic growth: the Solow Growth Model and the Romer Endogenous Model, thereby adding technological growth to the Solow Model. This combined model is then used to test two different methodologies of measuring human capital: the SCHOOL method as used by Mankiw, Romer, and Weil (1992) and the Human Capital Index (HCI), a relatively new statistic used by the World Economic Forum. My research then empirically tests each method of measuring human capital to determine which one is better at estimating economic growth. The research uses data from the Penn World data set, the World Bank, and the Barro-Lee dataset for 97 developed and developing economies around the world. Using the Davidson MacKinnon J-Test to empirically analyze the two methodologies, the SCHOOL method is shown to be a more robust predictor of economic growth than the HCI method.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
Tourism in Utah is largely driven by seasonal recreation at its variety of natural-heritage resources. The greatest impacts of tourism have been found mostly during summer and winter months, where recreational sports take the lead in many different activities. Utah is home of the ‘mighty’ five national parks: Canyonlands National Park, Arches National Park, Capitol Reef National Park, Bryce Canyon National Park and Zion National Park. From 2000 to 2016, the number of visitors to these parks has increased from 5.3 to 10 million visitors—an increase of 47 percent in merely 16 years— and has generated more than 625 thousand jobs since 2010. During winter months, Utah’s fourteen ski resorts attracts an average of 4 million visitors and supports an estimated 18,000 jobs across the entire state. Recreational spending by tourists and travelers has created a positive impact on Utah’s economy. In 2015, tourists’ expenditures set a high record of $8.17 billion in Utah, which generated $1.15 billion in total state and local tax revenues. This inflow of revenue and the jobs it creates spurs economic development within the state. This study uses VAR — a bivariate vector autoregression model — to examine the relationship between tourism growth and the non-Income Human Development Index between years 2000 and 2016, and applies the Granger Causality test to determine the casual nature of the relationship. We find evidence of tourism as an economic development tool, which not only accounts for economic growth in revenues, but the improvement of lives among Utah residents— seen through the increase in output highly dependent on human development and improvement in social welfare.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
Human SKIP (skeletal muscle and kidney-enriched inositol phosphatase) is a 51 kDa inositol polyphosphate 5’-phosphatase that is found in many tissues including brain, eye, and abundantly in the heart, kidney and skeletal muscle.(1-2) SKIP translocates from the endoplasmic reticulum at rest to the cell membrane upon insulin signaling which stimulates protein complex formation involving the insulin receptor.(3) SKIP exhibits affinity towards the fatty acid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate diC16 (PIP2 or PI(4,5)P2)(4) and it is thought that SKIP hydrolyzes the D-5 position of PIP2.(2) PIP2 is a phospholipid component of cell membranes where it is involved in insulin signaling.(5) The purpose of this experiment was to obtain recombinant, human, enzymatically active SKIP to be used as a tool to study signaling pathways associated with SKIP enzymatic activity. For this purpose, a HIS-SKIP chimera was produced in T7 Shuffle cells. Cultures containing T7 Shuffle cells transformed with pLATE31 SKIP were grown to log phase and protein expression was induced with IPTG (1 mM). Fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) using a nickel chromatography column was used to purify HIS-SKIP. HIS-SKIP was detected at 51 kDa using a Western blot using an anti-HIS probe. HIS-SKIP was more pronounced on the Western blot as concentration increased. The total concentration of the non-pure protein mixture which included HIS-SKIP obtained was 1186 µg/ml, as determined by a Bradford assay with a BSA standard curve. The total contribution of HIS-SKIP to the total protein concentration was determined to be ~30% or , ~356 µg/ml as assessed by SDS-PAGE. SKIP enzymatic activity was not detected using the Malachite Green Standard Curve in the partially pure preparation. There may be various reasons for not detecting enzymatic activity.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
Purpose: This systematic review was conducted to gain a better understanding of the contextual factors, mechanisms, and outcomes associated with organizational learning in inpatient hospitals. Background: Organizational learning is a positive change process by which organizations enhance their ability to achieve their desired outcomes. In hospitals, examples of desired outcomes include improvements in patient safety, care quality, patient experience, and financial viability. Although a growing body of research supports organizational learning as an effective strategy for achieving gains in each of these performance areas, the literature on organizational learning in inpatient hospitals has not been systematically reviewed. Thus, nursing researchers and leaders are without a practical resource to guide their efforts to study and foster organizational learning. Methods: Databases searched were CINAHL, MEDLINE, Academic Search Premier, Business Source Premier, PsychINFO, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and Sociological Abstracts. The search terms used were ("organi?ational learning" OR "team learning" OR "group learning" OR "collective learning" OR "learning organi?ation*" OR “workplace learning”) AND (hospital OR hospitals) with no limits set on date of publication. After an initial scan for duplicates, approximately 2,300 articles remained. Article titles were sorted for relevance based on the following criteria: reports empirical data from an inpatient hospital setting, treats organizational learning as a process rather than an output, situated in an inpatient hospital setting, written in English, published in a peer-reviewed journal, refers to human improvements in knowledge, cognition, or behavior. Article abstracts were reviewed, followed by a review of the full text. The remaining 197 articles were scored using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. During the appraisal process, 47 additional articles that did not meet the inclusion criteria or had critical methodological flaws were removed. Data extraction was performed for the remaining 150 articles, with a focus on contextual factors, mechanisms, and outcomes associated with organizational learning in inpatient hospitals. Results: Contextual factors associated with organizational learning included: shared purpose, motivation, psychological safety/relationships, infrastructure, skills in organizational improvement, and experience as a team. Mechanisms associated with organizational learning included: interaction, collective reflection, deliberate learning, practice, retention, and leadership. Outcomes associated with organizational learning included: clinical outcomes, patient outcomes, team outcomes, financial outcomes, and adoption of new/improved clinical practices. Implications: Organizational learning is an important process for improving patient care and performance in inpatient hospitals. This systematic review provides a practical resource for nursing leaders and researchers to advance the practice and science of organizational learning.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
Evolution is central to understanding Biology and Health. Nevertheless, many people still don’t accept evolution as a well founded principle and mechanism of change (Pew 2016). The central research of this project is to examine the acceptance of evolution among Biology majors at the beginning and end of their undergraduate experience, the reasons as to why they accept or reject evolution, and if applicable, why they changed their minds during their undergraduate experience. Previously, the acceptance of evolution in non-major Biology courses (Ferguson and Ogden) has been investigated. The results show that students can change their opinions on evolution and the leading factors for this were: 1) the teaching of evolutionary evidences drove changes in acceptance; 2) the importance of a role model; and 3) helping students overcome misconceptions. Further, previous studies examined students' observations and knowledge of evolutionary theory and found that the degree of conflicts perceived between religion and science was negatively correlated with their knowledge of evolution. Main Objective: The objective of this research is to better understand the acceptance of evolution among students majoring in Biology. Methods: We will administer a short "pre-interview survey" and we will conduct interviews with students majoring in Biology, that are enrolled in Biol 4550 and Biol 4500, in order to better understand the reasons why they accept or reject evolution and why they change or don't change their minds throughout their undergraduate experience. The survey and interview questions are designed to investigate the opinions of evolution and how the students changed throughout their undergraduate experience and over the course of the semester. The recordings will be transcribed and quantified by binning answers into categories. Given the high % of students that are LDS, we will ask a few additional questions concerning religion and the student's knowledge of their religion's position concerning evolution. Hypotheses: We proposed that as students knowledge of the evidence for evolution increased over their college years that acceptance would increase. We further hypothesized that religious students would have to reconcile their religion's position on science and evolution with their growing knowledge of evolutionary theory.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
The mission of Utah State University is to be one of the nation's premier student-centered land-grant and space-grant universities by fostering the principle that academics come first, by cultivating diversity of thought and culture, and by serving the public through learning, discovery, and engagement. Aggies Global Observatory is an effort to fulfill this mission statement by providing a resource which interprets current events through geopolitical frameworks in order to encourage a variety of perspectives, inform the public, provide resources for continual learning, and cultivate undergraduate engagement with the public. The project is accessible to the public as a website with a set of essays which explain basic premises of political geography. The essays define geopolitics, geographical entities, power, geopolitical codes, identities, boundaries, and flows. Student authors who work on the project write essays about topics which appear in the news in which they clearly attach defined concepts to actual events. Essays are added continually and older pieces are organized into archives. Geopolitical assessments do not often offer rose-colored lenses through which to view historical or continued action. Introducing concepts through relevant topics helps encourage individuals to expand the perspectives they are comfortable discussing and promotes active reflection on how to craft a better future. Our project will be successful if readership better understands the relationships which drive the world they live in and can further interpret news related agendas and information. In the process, the project enhances students’ knowledge of political geography and provides experience in writing about academic concepts in a way that allows communication to a non-academic audience.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
Research suggests there may be two potential issues for teachers in teaching English Language Learners (ELLs): lack of recognition of linguistic barrier between the student and the teacher, and assuming that the ELLs’ are not capable of learning English (Reeves, 2008). These issues can only be addressed by attaining a better understanding of the ELLs’ learning needs, both academically and emotionally, and exploring related teacher dispositions. To explore the learning needs, five students conducted qualitative research with six adult ELLs. the participants were selected from the Southwest Adult School, Dixie State University ESL program, and from the local community. Fifteen open-ended questions were posed to the interviewees. The interviewees’ answers provided new insight to what teachers of ELLs need to keep in mind. The interviews revealed that a mutually productive learning environment require three impactful elements: patience, human connections, and support. The presentation will discuss how and when the three elements will implemented to deviate the notion of the two potential issues in teaching ELLs.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
There are a number of factors that influence a student’s persistence in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields; one is the student’s science identity. Across the globe there is a growing trend of young people not being able to envision themselves as scientists. This trend is particularly noticeable in student’s who are part of underrepresented minority (URM) groups. However, research shows that developing a scientific identity is an essential part of becoming a scientist. Building a scientific identity does not happen overnight and requires repeated exposure to different settings. An individual’s identity is linked with not only retention in STEM fields, but also future career planning. Individuals with a scientific identity are more likely to enter and stay in STEM career paths. Our project focused broadening participation in STEM in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) community by providing experiences that can help build a scientific identity. We developed interventions at critical STEM Pathway exit points (middle/high school, early college, and graduate school) to help build individual’s scientific identity. For this project we define an individual with a strong science identity as an individual who displays (1) competence (demonstrates meaningful content knowledge), (2) performance (uses the tools, ways of acting, and fluency of a scientist in informal and formal settings), and (3) recognition (self-recognizes and is recognized by others as a scientist). For this proposal, we focus specifically on the graduate school exit point. We developed a Bridge to PhD program for master’s students from the USVI to participate in an eight-week research experience at an R1 institution. We used a case study approach to measure the influence of the Bridge to PhD Program and supporting activities (i.e. pre/post-family programming events, career development plans, weekly mentor meetings) on the participant’s scientific identity. The case study approach provided detailed insight on small groups of participants (n=3). Participants completed pre/post-assessments that measured their competence (STEM content knowledge), performance (talking about and using scientific tools), and recognition (self-recognition of being a science person); pre/post-interviews, and participated in pre/post-family programming events. These data will allow us to determine if students began constructing a science identity during the intervention.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
English is a difficult language to learn due to its complicated nature. However, if English learning can be guided by tutors who are trained to assist English Language Learners (ELL), the process can be simplified and meaningful. Students Helping English Language Learners (SHELL) Tutoring Program at Dixie State University is a unique tutoring program for international students. The uniqueness of the program underlies in the fact that all of the tutors are teacher education majors who are trained in the theories and methods of Second Language Acquisition (SLA). Appropriate literacy instruction is the key to helping the international students be successful in academics. However, literacy instruction for international students is not just teaching them how to read and write, but to assist them to adapt to the new culture. The SHELL tutors assist the international students in various ways to become familiar with the new environment and culture. Through trial and error, the tutors understand the importance of knowing efficient and appropriate teaching strategies for the specific individual they are in touch with. Based on the rules of qualitative research, the tutors gained understanding of the importance of knowing efficient and appropriate teaching strategies for each international student they are in touch with. At the same time, the tutors find themselves negotiating their identities as a teacher. They become aware of the improvement they are making in their teaching through communications with the international students. They notice the changes in the way they see culture and the world around them. This presentation will explore SHELL tutors’ experience in teaching International Students literacy through culture.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
A common practice among young adults throughout the United States and other countries is to delay or take time off during school for a “gap year.” The activities chosen differ, but often include travel, work, or volunteering. This time away from formal schooling is promoted as a way to mature and become more focused for school. However, others worry that this practice lowers the likelihood of college completion. Missionary service for members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is a unique type of gap year. Previous literature has investigated the academic, social, personal benefits of gap years with mixed results; however selection into gap years confounds the impact of taking time off with unobservable personal characteristics. To overcome selection issues, I exploit an exogenous policy change that lowered age requirements for missionary service resulting in a large increase in the number of women serving missions. I use data from Brigham Young University undergraduate students before and after this lowering in the age requirement for female missionaries, to measure the impact of taking time away from school on academic progress, academic performance and choice of major. The policy and panel nature of the data allow me to estimate using a difference in differences model. Preliminary results show that the mission policy age change did impact the age of service and number of missionaries for both men and women. Students impacted by policy change also had lower average GPA and a lower likelihood of changing their major. However, I expect that regression results will show that going on a mission will increase academic performance and affect major-related decisions. This research contributes to the understanding of women’s experience in post-secondary education and how they prepare for future careers.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
How can dance-history integrated learning improve comprehension and retention of history content? Studies show that using the mind and body together continually develops and improves a person’s ability to remap their brain and rejuvenate the central nervous system. Staying active mentally and physically in developmental years creates connections in the brain and body building foundations for cognitive development and improved memory and comprehension. This same connection is how dancers are able to learn concepts, vocabularies and information both kinesthetically and mentally. If these sorts of physical memorization techniques, and kinesthetic learning experiences were applied to history teaching, students may have an increased ability to engage with as well as retain historical information. Memory is a crucial part of maintaining and furthering knowledge and understanding in history, yet instructors still stand in front of students, verbally regurgitating the information students need to know in hopes they will understand and retain any of it. One solution for this in the past has been reenactment teaching as a way of engaging students in the material. But this also brings up ethical issues of dishonoring the past, and the people who actually experienced those events. While the intentions behind this method are well-meant, they often cause more problems than they solve and don’t usually offer students any more retention of the events than lecture style instruction. I believe dance-integration can be the solution to this issue. I will be analyzing sources on both dance and history pedagogy. I will use evidence from these sources to create a new argument for how the two subjects may be integrated in ways that will prove to have more successful results for students. I will examine studies and statistics of successful dance-integration projects and synthesize that information with the current failures in history teaching. I will also draw on my own experiences integration projects that I have worked on as a student at SUU. My thesis is that history learning will be more effective if it can be integrated with a creative movement component, as this will facilitate better retention of facts and help students to engage kinesthetically with the past, instead of emotionally. I believe teaching a connection of the body and mind together will foster improved memorization and comprehension of historical events, while steering away from reenactment experiences that minimize real lives and events of the past.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
CRAFTI is an emerging method for measuring molecular collision cross sections using the ultra-high resolving FTICR-MS instrument. Collision cross sections are important measurements to understanding size, tertiary structure, and ligand binding. CRAFTI has been shown to give accurate collision cross sections comparable to those from drift ion mobility, the leading cross section measurement method. Because CRAFTI measurements are carried out under single-collision conditions, CRAFTI can obtain cross sections for non-covalently bound complexes with interactions that are far too weak to address using drift ion mobility, where multiple thermal collisions can disrupt the complexes. However, CRAFTI’s requirement of single-collision ion dephasing is a hindrance to the measurement of larger mass ions because for ions that are massive compared to the neutral collision partner it is difficult to reach sufficient center-of-mass kinetic energy to cause dephasing (which usually occurs via collision-induced dissociation). In this study, we characterize these limitations by measuring different species (tetraalkylammonium, cryptand-metal ion, and cucurbituril complexes) at a range of kinetic energies. For polyatomic ions, CRAFTI cross sections are observed to increase with increasing center-of-mass kinetic energy until they reach a limiting value that is generally similar to cross sections computed from the expected molecular structure. The CRAFTI measurement reaches the calculated cross-section at a specific center-of-mass kinetic energy related to the energy of the bond being broken. We also performed MultiCRAFTI, a new experiment where we overcome the kinetic energy limit through simultaneous measurements of multiple species for internal comparison. Two analytes in a MultiCRAFTI experiment, though both are beneath the minimum kinetic energy requirement, give correct relative cross sections. These MultiCRAFTI measurements represent a new step toward extending the FTICR-MS to vital new areas of measurement in macromolecules and organo-metal complexes.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
Osseointegration plays a vital role in orthopedic surgery, as bone cells should be able to adhere and form on the implant surface to enable strong mechanical connection. Titanium has long been used in orthopedic and prosthetic implants because of its known toughness, strength and low conductivity, and especially its biocompatibility. However, native bone growth onto titanium is not optimal. Previous work in our lab has developed a carbon-infiltrated carbon nanotube surface which exhibits structural antimicrobial properties. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate osteoblast growth on this surface to determine whether the coating was cytotoxic, neutral, or osteogenic. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes were grown on top of commercially pure titanium samples using ethylene and hydrogen gas at 750C, followed by infiltration at 900C. Our control sample was an uncoated commercially pure titanium sample. Both the control and CI-CNT coated titanium samples were cell cultured with human osteoblasts kept at 39C for approximately 96 hours. The preliminary tests have shown that the CI-CNT coated titanium sample promotes enhanced osteoblast proliferation, as well as functionalization (e.g., they are laying down calcium as part of bone formation). These results may lead to an orthopedic implant coating which provides both structural antimicrobial behavior, as well as enhanced osseointegration.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
As metal films get thinner, their resistivity increases. We study the phenomenon using nickel films. The nickel films are made in a vacuum system with pressures below 10^-7 Torr. A nickel filament is heated to 1200°C to sublimate the nickel onto our glass substrate. A four-point measuring probe was used to measure voltage drops across the film at known currents. This gave a sheet resistance. Thicknesses of the thin films was verified by images on a scanning electron microscope. Thicknesses varied from 40nm-255nm. Resistivity of films were calculated to be between 22-147Ωnm. A graph of resistivity vs thickness will be presented and discussed on this poster.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
3D digital representations of experimentally characterized polycrystalline microstructures can be used to validate simulations, infer properties of microstructural constituents, and enable high-fidelity computational models to investigate materials phenomena and design materials with improved properties. Although such digital representations are already possible, current methods for their generation are time intensive and require the use of synchrotron radiation that can only be obtained at a few locations worldwide. For some types of microstructures, a newly developed characterization method called 3D surface microscopy has the ability to characterize all of the crystallographic degrees of freedom from 2D surface observations, and can be performed in standard electron microscopes that are available broadly. For through-thickness grained materials, full 3D microstructural reconstructions should therefore be possible with a great reduction in time and cost as compared to existing methods. To validate the accuracy of 3D surface microscopy measurements we collect EBSD scans from the top and bottom surfaces of polycrystalline metals, register the two scans, and assemble them into a full 3D digital representation of the microstructure, from which estimates of the grain boundary plane normals can be obtained (which are not available from traditional surface scanning techniques) The grain boundary normals obtained will then be compared to those measured using 3D surface microscopy on the same samples to estimate the accuracy of this new technique.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
Microfluidic chips have moved to the forefront of innovation and development in biological analytics, by reducing volume sizes, employing micro-scale physics, and incorporating many procedures into a single device. One application that is particularly well suited for microfluidics is polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR is the staple method used to amplify DNA, and essentially, relies on thermal cycling of a special chemical mixture. In this work, we present the optimization of hardware for performing PCR on microfluidic instruments at speeds as fast as 2 sec/cycle, which is up to 60 times faster than other applications and the fastest currently reported in the world. With the future goals of this project in mind, it became apparent that we needed to more thoroughly understand potential improvements for the fluid transport on the chip in order to increase control and replicability of results, which would then allow us to move on to more advanced testing. The design of our microfluidic chip required 8 significant iterations of channel design. The chips were judged on a performance scale in the categories of: ease of manufacture, failure rate, speed control, pressure drop, surface area, and thermal gradient. Failure rates decreased as we identified flaws in the manufacturing process and addressed new methods to avoid them. Significant changes included a new bonding and port gluing method, the introduction of rounded corners, a decreased surface area that influenced both chip adsorption and experienced pressure, and an improved method for imposing the thermal gradient across the chip. The future work of this project is very exciting: As all the aspects of this project are developed and brought together, the entire system will operate in a preconfigured manner that will eventually result in an accessible tool for while-you-wait DNA diagnostic tests.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
Electromagnetic (EM) motion tracking systems have been tested extensively and found suitable for many research and clinical applications. Such systems consist of a transmitter and multiple sensors that provide the position and orientation of each sensor relative to the transmitter. While it is easy to attach these sensors to limb segments and take measurements, extracting accurate and useful data (i.e. joint angles) from the sensors can be challenging. To do so a large and relatively complex set of steps must be followed: proper definition of Body Coordinate Systems (BCS) and Joint Coordinate Systems (JCS), proper sensor placement, the calculations governing the inverse kinematics, and the choice between different methods used to calibrate the Sensor Coordinate Systems (SCS) to the BCS. This study is a comparative analysis to understand how similar two commonly used calibration methods are: Landmark (LM) and Postural (P) calibrations. These two methods have intrinsic differences in BCS definitions. LM calibration uses the locations of skeletal landmarks relative to the SCS to define the BCS. It is commonly used by biomechanists in joint-level and cadaveric studies. P calibration uses superficial alignment of the limb segments in a known configuration to determine the BCS. P is commonly used by clinicians who study gross limb movement of subjects in-vivo. We collected EM motion tracking data from 12 healthy subjects as they performed a sequence of movements throughout their range of motion. EM sensor orientations were tracked and recorded. Inverse kinematics were performed on the same sensor data using both LM and P calibration methods. The joint angles resultant from LM and from P were then compared. The results indicated that the two methods differ in two major ways. First, there is an initial offset that is the result of innate differences in BCS definitions of LM and P. This offset is large enough in magnitude to make a significant impact on studies requiring accurate joint angle measurements. Second, the difference in joint angle values between the two calibration methods was not equal to the initial offset. Although there was high correlation in joint angle values between the calibration methods, the difference varied during the movements. Therefore, the two calibration methods are not equivalent, even for applications that focus only on relative motion (e.g. tremor). Caution should be used when choosing a method of calibration for upper-limb studies.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
The purpose of my research is aimed at establishing the ideal conditions for micro scale particle filtration on a microfluidic spiral channel device. Sperm washing, or filtration of sperm cells from semen, is a very important step in the process of artificial insemination. Before a sperm sample can be artificially inseminated it must be filtered of the seminal plasma present in the sample of semen. Current methods usually involve filtration by density using a centrifuge. This method, although proven effective, is damaging to sperm cells. Our goal it to improve upon this method by utilizing microfluidic devices with spiral channels as a method of filtration that is faster and isn’t as damaging to cells. This filtration technique works due to curvature of the channels in combination with the principals of inertial lift and Dean drag forces. These conditions result in partials of different diameters lining up at different positions along the channels width allowing filtration of partials due to size. To model this system we use a mixture of deionized water and micro-fluorescent beads that are 3 microns in size to represent the seminal plasma and sperm cells. The bulk of my research has been to collect data images of the separation observed when mixtures of deionized water and the fluorescent beads are run through the device at different speeds and concentrations in order to determine the speed and outlet size that results in the fastest filtration time. The next step was to evaluate each of the images collected to determine how wide the collection channel needs to be in order to collect the cells while minimizing the amount of fluid collected with the cells. Using the recorded speed at which the fluid was pushed through the device and the data collected from processing the images, the last step will then be to calculate the ideal speed to push fluid though the device to maximize filtration while minimizing the time it takes to completely filter a sample. From the data collected and evaluated thus far, we expect that ideal speed at which to run a sample through the device will be around .5 ml/min. We also expect that with adjustments to the collection outlets of the device the total time to filter an average size sample will take less than 20 minutes.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
Hitting coaches work constantly to improve player swings, and often differ in opinion about how to do this. Once such difference concerns the axis of rotation for the bat on its way to impact with the ball. Some instructors assert that the bat should rotate about the rear forearm, while others say it should rotate about the trunk. The purpose of this study was to determine which axis of rotation is more dominant, if either, in home run (HR) swings executed by NCAA Division I softball players, and if there are any advantages to either. To do this, 27 HR swings by DI players were analyzed using high speed video (100 Hz) and Direct Linear Transformation (DLT). 3D kinematics were analyzed for every frame from the onset of the swing until ball impact. The angle of the bat to the forearm and to the trunk were measure in each frame. It was then determined which axis was more perpendicular to the bat’s path for each frame. The percentage of each swing for which each axis dominated was calculated. These percentages were correlated to swing parameters to discover potential relationships. No relationships were found between dominant axis and bat speed, swing time, bat acceleration, or ball exit velocity. About 52% of the sample swings utilized a forearm-dominant axis, while the remainder utilized a trunk-dominant one. These results suggest that in the current sample, the dominant axis predicts no measurable outcome, and that there is room for variability in swing style.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
Most high-pressure combustion systems use water slurries to transport coal particles to the combustor. This is inefficient as a fraction of the energy released during combustion must be used to vaporize the water. Transporting coal with a gas would minimize this energy loss and improve combustor efficiency. However, transporting densely packed particles with gas at high pressure is challenging. This research evaluated the feasibility of using gas to transport dense phase coal through a simple pipe and identified the preferred initial coal distribution in the pipe to reduce particle removal times. CO2 was used to push coal through a 10-cm long, 0.635-cm diameter pipe to test the removal time when the gas mass flow rate and the initial position of coal particles was changed. Using Barracuda computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, cases with differing flow rates and initial coal positions were simulated until 99% of the coal particles had exited the pipe. The time for removal was compared for each case. It was found that a greater gas mass flow rate will remove the coal particles from the pipe faster. At lower mass flow rates, a large amount of particles exited quickly, but the coal remaining trickled out very slowly, elongating the removal time and weakening the transport efficiency. More total energy would be required at the lower mass flow rates for the remaining particles to be slowly removed. Furthermore, the initial position of the coal particles proved to be a very impactful variable. When the mass of particles was distributed in half of the pipe from bottom to top, more time was required for 99% removal at every gas mass flow rate. Because of the set-up, particles had to essentially climb over one another to leave the pipe. This caused a build-up at the end of the pipe that took a long time to empty. Distributing the same amount of particle mass in the first half of the pipe from left to right resulted in much shorter times to empty. The trends identified with the test data can be extrapolated to larger systems to find the ideal method to fully remove coal from a pipeline and into a combustion chamber when using carbon dioxide gas.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
The foot plays a vital role in understanding lower limb joint kinematics and kinetics, as it is the first link in the kinematic chain that contacts the floor during gait. Even with the advent of advanced motion analysis techniques, the foot is often studied as one single rigid body segment, despite the numerous bones and joints throughout. Several foot models have recently been developed to independently investigate motions of the hindfoot, midfoot, forefoot, and hallux. However, these models still combine multiple bone motions into one rigid body for each of these segments. The purpose of this research was to determine the motion of the first and fifth metatarsals as their own dynamic system, rather than consider them a rigid body as was done in previous research. Three subjects were imaged with dual fluoroscopy (DF) while descending a set of stairs. This technique uses two x-ray cameras, placed approximately 90° from one another, to record continuous x-ray images of the subject. This allows for in vivo bone motion to be determined within the three-dimensional (3D) volume of the combined field-of-view of the fluoroscopes. Separately, a CT image stack was acquired of each subject and the first and fifth metatarsals segmented. Projections through these segmentations were used to generate artificial x-rays of each metatarsal from numerous perspectives. A custom model-based markerless tracking software package was then used to align the artificial x-rays with the DF images to quantify the position and orientation of each bone in 3D space. A coordinate system was defined for both metatarsals. From which, the relative motions of the first and fifth metatarsals were compared during the weight bearing portions of stair descent. Since the metatarsals are dynamic systems, a rigid body assumption ultimately limits the understanding of foot kinematics. We hypothesize that the first and fifth metatarsals will demonstrate different motions during the loading and unloading portions of stair ascent. The comparison of the first and fifth metatarsals will allow us to determine if differences exist between first and fifth metatarsal kinematics, which could be particularly useful for future clinical diagnoses and investigations of various foot pathologies.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
To reverse the catastrophic effects that are impending due to climate change requires a drastic change in the way that people consume energy and view its production. Enough energy reaches the earth from the sun to provide 6000 times the current world’s consumption. The challenge is to construct solar power frameworks in such a way that people adopt and use it. The goal of this research is to create a reduced size solar array attachment that can easily and affordably turn any surface, including benches, bus stops, and trash cans, into a mobile device charging station and collect data concerning its use. A previous study by the BYU Open Access Solar group created a solar table capable of charging a mobile phone. The current Solar table would reach a financial break-even point in a minimum of 23 years. At that price only altruistic organizations and individuals would invest in such a product. Because the current solar table produces more power than needed to charge a single phone, the main objective of this research is to determine what size and arrangement of solar array and battery is necessary for a mobile device charging station, create an effective data logging and charging mechanism that can withstand the elements, and place prototypes in public places to determine how much potential power the Solar Patches can produce and how much energy is consumed as people charge their devices. This data will be used to determine if it is possible to further reduce the size of the array or the battery, and therefore minimize the cost and maximize the usability of the Solar Patch concept. In the coming months we will explore a variety of options for materials and design features. As we converge on the best ideas we will refine the design into a prototype which we will test by placing it around BYU campus and monitor the public use of the charging stations. A low-cost Solar Patch design will be at the forefront of bringing power production to where people use power. This will initiate a fundamental and creative change in the way people think about how their power is produced. Solar Patches will help people to feel that they are a part of this energy revolution. It is expected that this research will be published in Sustainability, be presented at the IEEE SusTech conference.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
Purpose: Wrought magnesium alloys have excellent strength to weight ratio and could therefore be used for lightweighting the auto body structure; however, they have poor formability at room temperature and are highly anisotropic. The feasibility of stamping these alloys in sheet form can be carried out by numerical simulation, but the inputs to the model are flow stress curves for different temperatures, strains, and strain rates, obtained by a long, expensive experimental campaign. Another approach to obtaining the needed input data is to model the behavior of the alloy as a function of texture and deformation mechanism for the range of strain rates, strain levels, and temperatures needed for the stamping simulation. Research Methodology: The current work proposes to employ the well known viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) model for magnesium alloy AZ31B, where twinning and slip are active in different proportions, depending on the temperature and the strain rate. Flow stress curves for the rolling direction, 45°, and transverse directions were generated at several temperatures (50-, 75-, and 100-) and several strain rates (0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1) by the VPSC approach and then used as input to a finite element model of a punch stretching experiment, carried out at different temperatures. The surface strains on the sheet were measured by digital image correlation (DIC) and compared to the model results. The simulations are validated using the force vs displacement curves from the experiment, as well as using the strain patterns that were obtained by DIC. Conclusions: The validation process will allow us to study the quality of the VPSC outputs indirectly, by comparing the finite element simulations to our stretch forming experiments. If successful, this approach provides a new low-cost approach for engineers to generate the data they need for modeling intricate forming operations in desirable, but complex alloys. Additional validation could be performed via tensile tests at different temperatures and strain rates.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
About 9 million people worldwide die each year due to air pollution related problems. The purpose of our project is to develop an innovative solution to the increasing air pollution problem in Utah, specifically Ozone and PM2.5. Although our project is targeted towards the specific needs of Utah, the research and solutions that we propose here will be applicable globally. Utah has a population of roughly 3 million people and research suggests that by 2050 that population will double, leading to increased emissions from vehicles, homes, and businesses. A recent survey suggests that for Utahns, poor air quality is the greatest negative attribute of their quality of life and one of their strongest concerns. Utah has geographically unique problems contributing to air pollution in that it sits in a valley with mountains surrounding it making a “bowl” shape which allows inversions. An inversion occurs when cooler air settles in the valley, trapping pollutants, forming thick smog. This prevents sunlight from warming the ground, reducing air movement. The cold air stagnates and can’t be removed until a pressure change occurs with an incoming storm. The smog consists of NOx, SOx, CO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5, and ozone, which cause various environmental and health problems. Our solution is a build solar updraft towers (SUTs) at multiple locations around the valley. A solar updraft tower consists of a large area of clear greenhouse material connected to a very tall, central tower or stack. The sun passes through the greenhouse material, warming the ground and air underneath. This results in a net flow of air toward and up the tower. The SUT can reduce air pollution and prevent the associated health problems in three ways. 1) The thermally generated wind at the base of the tower can be harnessed using wind turbines to generate electricity. This will be green energy that does not require the burning of fossil fuels. 2) Electrostatic and absorption filters will be installed within the tower to remove pollutants from the incoming air. 3) During an inversion, the wind turbines can be externally powered to move cold air out of area, removing pollutants, thus reducing the length of the inversion.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
The gap between public perception of a fuel load and applicable range management is wide. Land managers wish to properly manage invasive species encroachment, but are commonly faced with opposition. Without a proper understanding of a fuel load, rangeland reaches deplorable conditions allowing for unnaturally hot fires to burn. The public currently perceives management techniques such as bull hogging and clear cutting as negative. Similar techniques may be prescribed to restore the ecosystem to a seral stage. In areas such as southern Utah, forests have been permitted to grow older than ever before, leaving these forests incredibly vulnerable to fire. Such devastation has called for swift changes in management practices. Negative connotations predominantly arise from special interest groups without backgrounds in forest management. Our research looks at strategies to bridge the gap between negative perception of forest fires and effective rangeland management. A population diverse poll was conducted to further investigate and educate the gaps within the local community.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
Ambrogio Lorenzetti’s fresco cycle, The Allegory of Good and Bad Government (1339), decorates the walls of the “Room of Peace” (Salla della Pace) in the municipal headquarters of the medieval, Tuscan city state of Siena. These frescos employ countless carefully crafted allegories and representations of virtues and vices used to inspire Siena’s civic rulers to govern justly. Traditionally, this piece has generated a good deal of scholarship because of its importance in the history of Sienese art. Many attempts to delve deeper into its meaning have employed an iconographical approach in art history. My project, however, will go beyond the limitations of Erwin Panofsky’s system of iconography and will instead employ a semiological analysis, which considers the full range of meanings evoked by a signifier. As the fresco cycle portrays different aspects of Sienese culture—politics, religion, labor, economics, etc.—a semiological analysis will enable an exploration between these overlapping parts of society. To do this, I will bring to light the importance of one small but critical object: the solitary birdcage hanging above the classroom in the center of the Good Government fresco. I argue that through its representation of containment and bondage, this birdcage functions as a semiological signifier for submission to the city of Siena in civic, religious, and cultural contexts. My project makes an important contribution to the scholarship of one of the most iconic masterpieces of fourteenth-century Italy, but it also contributes a fascinating, medieval perspective on faith and obedience to the greater conversation about government and its relationship with its citizens.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
Zoroastrianism is severely under-studied in the realm of world religions, even though it was the dominant religion of a powerful empire and had a significant impact on Judaism and later Christianity. As Islam spread throughout the Middle East, fanatics persecuted the faithful and destroyed their literature, limiting the resources available to a few extant documents and oral traditions. The limited nature of reliable resources on the Zoroastrian faith is the reason that most world history surveys gloss over Zoroastrianism. Study and understanding of this ancient faith is a critical tool for students of world history who want to understand the way of life of the Persian Empire and the rest of the ancient near east.This commentary aims to create an easily accessible and understandable way to encounter the Zoroastrian religion and grasp the foundational principles thereof, including mythology, morality, religious laws, spells, rituals, and customs. The Vendidad is a book from the Zend-Avesta, the religious texts of the Zoroastrian religion. There are very few commentaries on the writings of the Prophet Zarathustra, and there is a need for resources in this area. This commentary uses the 1880 English translation of the Vendidad by James Darmester with commentary by F. Max Muller. Other sources include M.L West’s 2010 The Hymns of Zoroaster, and A. V. Williams Jackson’s Zoroaster: The Prophet of Ancient Iran., which is still generally accepted as the most comprehensive biography of the Prophet. This commentary gives understanding and insight into the life and times of the inception of the religion using the best information available to students of Zoroastrian theology and outlines them in an easy to understand format.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
The Himba tribe of northern Namibia is currently in an uncertain state as they address the increasing pressures of westernization and modernization against their traditional lifestyle. Their traditional roles and identities in particular are threatened to change by these influences. Himba women, who often lack a voice within their society, use their clothing to visually present and converse about their roles as women. As Himba women are robbed of a political voice and often forced to submission by men, they are without a platform to contribute to the Himba's dialogue to address their roles under cultural change. However, they engage with this cultural issue through their attire. It is important for anthropologists to recognize these women's use of clothing as a conversation medium to fully understand the issue of changing roles for women. In a climate that causes them to reevaluate what it means to be a woman, Himba women use their traditional clothing as a visual presentation of their views of femininity, as well as a visual dialogue concerning their roles as women.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
Based on my own fieldwork in northern Namibia, this paper follows a number of cultural killings dealing with witchcraft among the indigenous groups of Himbaland. It demonstrates not only a local psycho-cultural perspective (through their distinctive experiences of shame, guilt, and fear) but also creates an empathetic view of how witchcraft works as a leveling mechanism to keep traditional society alive in an ever-transitioning world. Overall, these findings contribute the Himba as a case study to the discussion between universal human rights and traditional customs.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
Most of the scholarship around Nazis and early 20th century art focuses on Nazi ideologies and the theory of Degenerate Art. This project is instead going to focus on how Hitler and several of his high ranking officials sought out and stole valuable art while hiding behind their ideology. A Nazi elite school developed a program called Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg (ERR), which translates to the Reichsleiter Rosenberg Taskforce. The ERR program was established in Paris, France in mid 1940 and continued until the end of the war in 1945. The ERR program’s sole goal was stealing Jewish art collections and dividing the highest value art between high ranking official Hermann Göring and Hitler. Hermann Göring was known for his command of the Nazi Air Force, his rank as Reichsmarschall which gave him seniority over all of Germany’s armed forces officers and being the second most powerful man in Germany. In his career, Hermann Göring also was in charge of the ERR, tasked with Hitler’s order to confiscate art, particularly from Jewish people, throughout Nazi occupied countries. This thesis will cover how this crime was not about confiscating art or Nazi ideology, but about racial prejudice as a cover for crime.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
Brayden Jackman, Southern Utah University An analysis is made which seeks to identify the ways in which authors utilize symbols in their writing to convey specific messages. Particularly, it discusses how these messages and the use of symbols may vary and why. Two theatrical works are identified as the basis of this study. The first is entitled El si de las ni̱as and is written by Leandro MoratÌ_n. The second is Don Juan Tenorio and was written by JosÌ© Zorrilla. Both of these authors are Spanish and the two works were written within a few decades of each other. However, these authors pertain to different cultural and literary movements. Leandro MoratÌ_n, is a neoclassical author, while JosÌ© Zorrilla, is a romantic author. Due to the nature of the material used and the field of study, the paper is written in Spanish. It first gives a brief overview of the cultural ideas that were circulating at the time that both of the previously mentioned authors were actively writing. It later identifies key characteristics in literature of their respective movements, giving examples of how they are used within the text. It then identifies the use of specific symbols, light and darkness, within each of the two works, and discusses how the authorå«s use of them impacts the message that they are conveying. The conclusion is then made that the placement of symbols within the context of a story is key. Symbols evoke emotions, which can subtly emphasize key points that the author tries to make while simultaneously helping the audience to better connect with them.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
This paper explores the cultural significance of dance in Ancient Grecian culture and the influence it has since had on our society and its view of the arts, focusing specifically on dance and the theatrical arts. When looked at through an anthropological standpoint the act of dance has its roots in the beginning of man and throughout history it has been celebrated and presented differently. The art of dance performance, as it is now, evolved from the Grecian concept of dance theater to the performance-based culture that is so prevalent today. The Ancient Greeks would dance in their daily lives as well as for performance purposes whereas in modern societies dance is more of a performance art than a cultural influence. This paper explores several Greek folk dances known today as well as their potential roots and what they demonstrate about Greek culture. The Greeks used dance in everything from education to physical training to a spiritual relationship between man and the gods. This implicates that dance was heavily invested in their daily lives and cultural identity. With this tie to daily life, this paper will explore the relationship between accepted folk dances from previous generations and the modern concept of dance in social settings.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
Through the power of the pen and caricatures, Thomas Nast brought down the politically corrupt regime of Boss Tweed in New York in the late nineteenth century. In our modern climate of political corruption and division, satire continues to effectually invite reform. This project uses the case study of Thomas Nast against Boss Tweed to study how modern late night TV hosts and political cartoonists criticize the administration of President Trump To understand Nast in his historical context, my research has focused primarily on two questions: how did Nast get to a position of influence? And what made him an effective influencer? This historical framework has then been examined with the theoretical frameworks of Walter Benjamin’s theory on the political value of mechanically reproduced material and Pierre Bourdieu’s theories of radical contextualism. This interdisciplinary method provides a unique analysis of which methods used by Nast are still being used today. The purpose of evaluating Nast’s effectiveness as a satirist is to see how similar tactics are being employed by modern satirists, and, more importantly, what methods were used by Nast that are not being used by modern satirists. I have limited my study of satirists to the political cartoons of the Wall Street Journal along with the television programming of Saturday Night Live, The Late Show with Stephen Colbert, and Last Week Tonight with John Oliver. The reasons I decided to limit myself to these is because I esteem them to be the most comparable to Nast in our modern setting. They have also all been critical of Donald Trump in various ways. Part of the project will be exploring how Nast’s work is applicable in the new, postmodern cultural context with its new mediums of communication.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
Alternatives to fossil fuels is a vast field of opportunity that is still being optimized. In the area of biofuels, organisms such as algae and bacteria that are used for the production of biofuels often die as a result of accumulating hydrocarbons on the cell membrane. The solution to this problem could lie in the use of ionic liquids (ILs), which could serve as a way to collect the hydrocarbons being produced without disturbing the cells, and in turn allow for a continuous extraction process. Hydrocarbon-based biofuels produced by bacterial cells in an aqueous solution can be extracted with water-immiscible ionic liquids. The ionic liquid-biofuel mixture is separated from the cell-containing aqueous solution for isolation of the hydrocarbons. The ionic liquids themselves are “green” in that they can be recycled, mostly due to the fact the structure of the IL is unchanged following extraction and can easily be recovered for further extraction cycles. The ionic liquids are optimized to be non-toxic to the biofuel-producing organisms, and to maximize their solvation properties of hydrocarbons. The main structural properties contained within these new ionic liquids include organic cations to increase hydrocarbon solubility, and anions to improve water immiscibility. The successful production of ionic liquids that have hydrocarbon carrying capacity and non-toxic cellular activity would be a major breakthrough in the cost effectiveness of biofuel production.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
Wing Commander A.J. Lyle Raf, identified a trend throughout warfare. He theorizes that an adopted perception often drives technological development and the justified advancement of its use. This is the case with drones and their subsequent participation in military operations. During the last seven years nearly 60,000 articles and journals concerning drones and their relation to current and future effects on the battlefield were published. This represents a dramatic increase from the decade before. The topic of this proposed research will focus on the military use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as drones, and their effect on the global society. The primary research issue is; does the use of military drone strikes degrade cultures, norms, and social cohesion of the five basic institutions found in every global society? In essence, will the institutions of a target government, economics, education, religion and families, receive irreparable harm as direct result of military drone operations. Chamayou, Gregoire and Gregory, Derek called attention to the degradation of culture and the societies in which these actions are performed. Stanford-NYU report states that people must cope with the realization that they cannot defend themselves. Cohn, Marjorie and Mirer, Jeann found evidence that a human right of peace is not affordable to those who live in these partnership zones. Further, they indicate that if a signature strike is ordered then all combat eligible males are prospective targets. This strike could happen at their homes, schools, places of employment, weddings and even funerals. Ahmad Shakeel adds that with local governments seen as ineffective and unable to protect the civilians, a radicalization can occur. Hudson, Leila; Owens, Colin S; Flannes, Matt published a paper in Middle East Policy, that coins the term accidental guerrilla. This phenomenon is a result of casualties among non-combatants in these designated strike zones. The authors continue that the resultant conflicts could be blowback from the perception of America’s infractions as a United Nation country. This reveals a plausible feedback loop that could undermine global ties as we know them. The proposed research will utilize qualitative methods, with a supporting mix of quantitative data collection analysis, that should result in a high probability confidence toward accurately identifying the answer to the posed question. The preliminary literary review indicates a support for the conclusion to the proposed issue and identified theoretical hypothesis that drone strikes do have a detrimental effect on the world’s societies.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
Interest in microfluidic devices has grown significantly within the past decade. We believe that microfluidic devices may help with current in vitro fertilization techniques. In this work, we will compare devices constructed with multiple types of polymers to those constructed of a single type of polymer. Specifically, we show that devices made of multiple types of polymers provide better stability, better flexibility, and a simpler fabrication. The fabrication of these devices varies according to the material used, but all processes include polymer binding, exposure to heat, and pressure. Our results indicate that with the correct combination of heat, pressure, and polymers, we can create devices able to withstand the moderate pressures and flow rates of the operating device. While we now hope to use these devices to refine and improve in vitro fertilization, we believe that they can also be used in other microfluidic devices to, for example, improve cancer diagnosis and polymerase chain reaction.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
I plan to research the possibility of using the modern podcast as a medium to publish the familiar essay. Once thought of as a thing of the past, the modern essay permeates American culture more than almost any other format of writing. It can be seen in blog posts, newspaper columns, memoirs, and even social media posts. Although it is not normally advertised in these contexts as an essay, it carries the same exploratory characteristics that shaped social innovations and revolutions throughout the history of the United States. It was used to draw attention to social injustices by activists like James Baldwin and W.E.B. Du Bois. It was used to draw votes by political hopefuls like Theodore Roosevelt. It was even used to define and prescribe aspects of culture— including fashion, literature, media, and food— by magazines such as The New Yorker. Essays have long been influential to the middle class American. Podcasts have been taking advantage of elements of the essay without knowing it for the past several years. Popular shows such as Hidden Brain, This American Life, Invisibilia, and Revisionist History produce episodes that either are essays or contain various essayic elements that provide the same kind of charming, persuasive clout of the essay of previous centuries. In this project, I delve into this as-of-yet unexplored connection between a classic genre and a new, popular medium of delivery. I will test my hypothesis that the principles of an engaging, popular essay are also the principles that make an engaging, popular nonfiction podcast. I will do so by conducting research for, writing, and producing a podcast using essayic traits.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
Can different literary theories be applied to the movie Bladerunner? The purpose of the research is to find common themes of literary theory and see if the themes of Bladerunner fit within these literary theories of post-structuralism and post-colonialism. I will be looking at two different Marxist theorists, Benjamin and his essay “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction” and Jameson and his essay “Postmodernism and Consumer Society”. I will also be looking at Said’s essay “Orientalism” in regards to asserting that Bladerunner is also a post-colonial work. Within Benjamin’s essay I would be looking at the idea that humans are works of art and that androids are mechanical reproductions of said art and the implications of this in regards to originality. I will be looking at Jameson’s essay and the idea of consumerist society and how it ties in with Bladerunner as well as the novel that inspired Bladerunner, Philip K. Dick’s Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? The significance of this is seeing if this popular eighties cult classic is what it might reveal by looking at it with different literary theories. The concluding research will help illuminate how these theories can add a different viewing and reading in regards to Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? and Bladerunner.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
Zachary Webb, Dixie State University Beast is a marimba solo written by American composer and guitarist Steven Mackey. In recent years Mackey has been commissioned by groups such as the Los Angeles Philharmonic,the Kennedy Center, Sydney Symphony and New World Symphony. The central premise and intent behind creating a performance guide for Beast is that, as Mackey is an important American composer, understanding the processes and principles of his music is beneficial. Also, the value of studying marimba techniques employed in performance of the piece is important. The process and methodology of the research included a harmonic and rhythmic analysis of Beast in addition to preparing a performance. The process of identifying each element and comparing and contrasting it throughout the entire piece of music is paramount in research of the nature. Mackey uses compositional elements and utilizes performance techniques i a way that it introduces it well to the intermediate marimbist. With this knowledge, a musically mature and coherent performance is possible. Performance guides are effective and significant in the music field and this guide to Beast is no exception. As Mackey’s music continues to be performed by the leading symphonies and percussion students have a desire to learn, Beast will increase in stature in the canon. And as Beast was written with the intermediate marimbist in mind, the amount of in depth performance guides for that niche market are not readily available.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
Abstract Title: Artistic Behaviors and Aggressive Tendencies in Childhood Author: Ashlyn Judd Mentor: Michelle Grimes, Ph.D. Background: Art has been credited with assisting children in strengthening their sense of identity, self-esteem, self-expression, as well as aiding in trauma processing (Hashemian, 2015; Kramer, 1972; Parisian, 2015). Though the theoretical foundation for art therapy as an intervention for aggression has been discussed, little research is available to evaluate this claim. The available data consists primarily of case study methodology. To add to existing knowledge, we employed a correlational study to investigate if there is a relationship between visual arts engagement and aggressive tendencies in children. We hypothesized there would be a negative relationship between artistic involvement and aggressive behavior. Methods: 148 participants completed the study. Inclusion criteria included being the parent of a child between the ages of 4-12. The average age of the participating parent was 35.4 (SD=7.09). The average age of child was 7.5 (SD=2.99). Participants were recruited from the SUU SONA system and Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. Participants completed a 16 item child aggression questionnaire, as well as a 10 art involvement questionnaire. Both questionnaires were developed specifically for this project. Participants recruited via SONA were compensated by receiving course credit. Participants recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk were compensated with $0.10. Results: We ran a Pearson’s correlation to explore the relationship between the Art Survey total score (M=28.22, SD=5.74) and the Aggression survey total score (M=26.83, SD=8.59). The results showed a non-significant relationship between these variables r = .080, p = .369. Conclusion: The negative correlation that we predicted was not found. There are a few possibilities to explain this finding. The first is that art and aggression do not have the inverse relationship predicted by the theory. Another possibility may be that the self-report methodology did not accurately measure art, aggression, or both constructs. Further experimental study is needed to address the effectiveness of art therapy with children. Implications and future directions of the research will be discussed further.
January 01, 2018 12:00 AM
“Diary from Enisle Prison” is a short fiction narrative depicting privilege finally confronted with reality. In it, a reporter is temporarily imprisoned with society’s outcasts and records a few of the inmates’ tales. Internal dialogue carries this piece: by forsaking the traditional third person narration, the reader is allowed to follow the internal journey of the reporter from a view of social justice as a privileged man’s sport, to a realization of critical and urgent plight of those individuals arbitrarily deemed deviant. Modelling concepts established by the likes of Henry David Thoreau and George Orwell, this story takes political narrative to a fictional, dystopian setting to enable literary commentary on current issues. This story expresses my views on the importance of informing those voices who create policy, and was itself informed by the scholarship I have pursued as an aspiring author.