Social and Behavioral Sciences
Schwartz’s Theory of Basic Values argues that self-enhancement values and self-transcendent values are oppositional. However, recent research of American members of the LDS Church (Mormons) indicates that individuals that are American and Mormon may use self-enhancement goals to accomplish self-transcendent goals or vice versa. My research focuses on American Mormons to test Schwartz’s Theory in a case study setting. Utilizing focus group data, I examine the potential value conflict in depth. It is possible that individuals find ways to integrate conflicting value systems. This project explores the extent to which American Mormons feel that their religious teachings encourage them to embrace the values that are prioritized by their nationality. This research may have larger implications for exploring value conflict between one’s nationality and one’s religion. Which may have the potential to provide a new interpretation for Schwartz’s value theory.
The U.S. resettles refugees, and Utah is one of the states where refugees from various communities are resettled. Over 50% of refugees are youth under the age of 18 years. These youth attend public schools and should identify higher education as an option as they graduate from high school. Unfortunately, many students with refugee backgrounds do not have any role models and/or mentors to assist them in moving toward a college education. Mentoring has been suggested as a method that helps many vulnerable populations in the U.S. Although mentoring has been used to help other economically disadvantaged populations, mentoring has yet to be provided to refugee youth populations. This study sought to pair refugee youth between the ages of 10-13 with undergraduate student mentors from the University of Utah, with the objective of pairing refugee youth with college-age role models. Data from the evaluation of this project will be presented highlighting the strengths and challenges for developing this type of mentoring program.
This qualitative research study aims to explore how access to online health information is impacting the provider-patient relationship, and more specifically that of Nurse Practioners (NP) and Physician’s Assistants (PA), termed mid-level providers. The Internet provides an array of information that can be accessed almost anywhere in the world. Among the countless numbers of subjects available on the World Wide Web, searches surrounding eHealth continue to be some of the most popular. The accuracy of Internet medical information could lead to concerns surrounding patient safety. Many patients with health concerns have often already self-diagnosed their medical conditions before they walk through the clinic doors and are searching for a second, and often, validating opinion from providers. The advent of the Internet and its impact on the provider-patient relationship will be the focus of this research. Through semi-structured interviews, we will assess the experience of mid-level providers across the state of Utah on their perceptions of online medical information, patient’s use of this information, and how it may be affecting their relationships with patients. Medical providers, as a result of eHealth, may feel a loss of authority and a change to the more traditional roles within the provider-patient relationship. The findings of this research have the potential to promote patient safety and offer recommendations for creating a new collaborative-style relationship between patient and provider, with the Internet as an entity to be recognized within that relationship.
Fake news has been known, defined and researched in the context of satire. However, a growing trend is the production, consumption and distribution of fake news in the form of actual malice. In fact, Pulitzer Prize winner and political debunking website, PolitiFact.com awarded its 8th annual “Lie of the Year” to the fake news phenomenon for 2016. This form of fake news is typically written by non-professionals, who pursue agendas or exploit internet culture for payment. Even though noxious fake news, like satirical fake news, is fictional and made with or without the intent of harm, it can have consequences that impact real life. This study is a content analysis that categorizes the believability of online news consumers who distributed or interacted with the top 10 fake news articles of 2016 on Facebook.
Social Partners Predict Drinking Behaviors: The Distribution of Peer-Reared Cage Mates and its Effects on Alcohol Consumption in Rhesus Monkey Social Groups
Social condition may predict alcohol consumption in both humans and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). A recent (unpublished) study in our lab showed that rhesus macaques who are living in social groups drink significantly less alcohol when compared to subjects drinking alone; furthermore, social setting modulated biological and social risk factors associated with increased alcohol consumption (i.e. serotonin transporter genotype, rearing, etc.). This project aims to further investigate the role of peer influence within rhesus macaque social groups on individual rates of alcohol consumption. Specifically, this project proposes that the quantity of alcohol consumed by an individual rhesus macaque may be influenced by the amount of alcohol consumed by their peers. Data were collected from 109 socially-housed adult rhesus macaques (37 males, 72 females) over 7 years. An aspartame-sweetened 8.4% alcohol-water solution and its sans-alcohol vehicle were available for subjects to consume for 1 hour a day over 5-7 weeks. The serotonin transporter genotype (LL and LS) for each monkey was determined using polymerase chain reaction followed by gel electrophoresis. Within-rearing group z-scores were calculated for each peer-reared and then each mother-reared monkey, thus giving a standardized measure of whether individuals were below or above their rearing group mean. The relationship between an individual monkey’s alcohol consumption z-score and peer influence was the chief interest of to this study. Peer influence according to rearing was measured by calculating the percentage of social-mates who were peer-reared (typically known to consume more alcohol) within each social cohort. Analyses were performed to assess deviation from the overall rearing group mean alcohol intake as stratified by the percentage of peer-reared subjects within each social cohort. A similar set of analyses were also performed using within-serotonin-transporter-genotype (i.e. LL or LS) group z-scores and the percentage of LS-genotype (typically shown to consume more alcohol) social mates to assess the relationship between individual alcohol intake and peer influence according to genotype. Simple linear regressions were performed using the alcohol consumption z-scores and social-mate percentages. No significant relationship was found between the percentage of LS monkeys and alcohol consumption z-scores. There was, however, a significant relationship (p = 0.003, r = 0.477) between the percentage of peer-reared social-mates and the alcohol consumption z-scores. In other words, as the percentage of peer-reared social-mates increased, so too did the relative consumption of alcohol comparative to the average of other socially-caged monkeys.
The purpose of this study is to determine whether a measure of holistic quality of narrative abilities aligns with scores obtained on a standardized measure of narrative proficiency in typically developing children. Scores on the Holistic Assessment of Narrative Discourse (HAND; Holbrook, Beck, Reische, Froerer, Mumford, & Gillam, 2017) rubric were compared to scores on the Test of Narrative Language- Second Edition (TNL- 2; Gillam & Pearson, 2017). The results of this study may help us to inform our assessment of children with developmental language impairment by understanding how methods for quantifying narrative proficiency differ qualitatively and quantitatively. The rubric used in the current study was designed after one proposed by McFadden & Gillam (1996) who used a holistic quality rubric to characterize stories of students with and without language impairments. A total of 260 typically developing children participated in the study. There were 42, 4 year olds, 57, 5 year olds, 68, 6 year olds and 93, 7 year olds. The children were part of the normative sample for the Test of Narrative Language-2 (Gillam & Pearson, 2017). The children were asked to retell a story after a sample narrative, tell a story based on sequenced pictures after a sample narrative, and develop a story based on a picture following a sample narrative. Stories were transcribed by Utah State University research assistants using Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT; Miller, 2002). The holistic scoring procedure was modeled after the McFadden & Gillam rubric in which narratives were independently rated by two reliable team members into six holistic quality categories. The HAND was created to measure overall aesthetic quality of narratives told by children as an adjunct to the TNL-2. The rubric uses a like scale of 0-5. We hypothesize that the HAND will correlate with the TNL-2 for stories that score 4s and 5s or 0s and 1s. Stories that score 2s and 3s may not correlate highly with the TNL-2, and as such, the HAND may provide additional, useful information for clinicians to use in intervention planning. Aspects related to these scores indicate that the stories are incomplete, contain weak causal relationships, don’t contain endings, are boring, disorganized, confusing, contain too much detail or too little detail. These elements are not explored in detail on the TNL-2 and have been shown to be contributing factors to narrative proficiency in children with language impairments, or Autism Spectrum Disorders.
For the homeless population, life consists of balancing the daily needs of shelter, food, and safety with the management of health and health care needs. For homeless women of reproductive age, there is an even greater challenge due to their anatomy and physiology, and compromises in cleanliness due to menstruation. Very little research focusing on the needs and experiences of homeless women has been published, and even less research has focused specifically on their needs surrounding menstruation. In order for proper menstrual hygiene to be achieved, the minimum requirements include clean products and an access to materials for washing (soap, water, wipes, etc.,). The purpose of this survey-based study is to assess menstrual hygiene management of homeless women and determine if there are any unsatisfied needs, such as availability of products or accessibility to proper cleaning materials. Due to the social and emotional consequences that a deficit in resources may cause, the study will also explore the experiences and perceived difficulties a homeless woman might face in obtaining and maintaining these needs. Researching the impact that being homeless has on proper menstrual hygiene management will help to determine if there is a need for further intervention.
Our research project’s purpose is to determine how an international basketball player’s performance is affected by changing leagues. In other words, we will compare a player’s effectiveness in one league to his performance in another. Therefore, this comparison will account for intra-league and cross-league variability. Our project will help Xpheres Basketball Management, a European agency, use a better approach while negotiating player contracts in a different league. Xpheres collected statistics from 25 men’s professional leagues and 71 FIBA tournaments and provided us a sample of their data. Using this sample, we studied players’ statistics such as efficient offensive performance per 40 minutes (EOPx40M), points per 100 team possessions, assists per 100 possessions, and blocks per 100 possessions. We employed a hierarchical model, from a Bayesian perspective, to estimate the average for a few selected performance metrics in weaker leagues and stronger leagues. For example, we compared the averages of these metrics between an Argentinian league and the Spanish ACB league. For the metric, a player’s efficient offensive performance per 40 minutes of play, we concluded that it is significantly affected by switching between the two leagues, with Argentina being significantly higher than the ACB league’s players. We postulated this significant difference is an artifact of the distinct levels of difficulty. With this conclusion in mind, our research project will study more player statistics and account for more variables that may affect a player’s effectiveness, such as age. Once this project is complete, we will gain an accurate understanding of what factors significantly affects a player’s performance.
In the United States, conservative beliefs center around abiding authority and maintaining social cohesion. It is therefore plausible that conservative beliefs may influence Americans’ attitudes to addictive substances and behaviors. Previous research suggests that substances, such as heroin, prescription opioids, marijuana, and alcohol, differ in terms of their perceived addiction potential, and that certain behaviors, such as pornography and gambling, are also perceived as potentially addictive. Furthermore, while these substances and behaviors are widely prevalent in American culture, they differ in terms of legal status between states. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between conservatism and attitudes toward a variety of addictive substances and behaviors. The following hypotheses are proposed: (a) conservatism will be positively correlated with perceived addiction potential, and (b) conservatism will be negatively correlated with a willingness to affiliate with individuals who engage in addictive substances or behaviors. The current study aims to recruit over 6oo participants to complete an online survey that will assess attitudes to one of the following substances or behaviors: heroin, prescription opioids, marijuana, alcohol, gambling, or pornography. The findings of this study will help to elucidate the relationship between conservative beliefs and attitudes towards these addictive substances/behaviors. These data may help to guide the targeted implementation of educational interventions to both increase awareness of addiction potential, and reduce negative bias (stigmatization) regarding those who suffer from substance or behavioral addictions.
Fear is a conscious feeling that results from perceived threats, whether they be physical or psychological. Experiences that are embedded in fear will shape future perceptions (LeDoux, 2016). The purpose of this research is to understand the factors that contribute to fear-based decisions among university students in colleges and universities within the state of Utah. The first stage of this data collection will begin with a survey distribution to students enrolled at Utah Valley University. The second stage of survey distribution will be a survey distribution at other public colleges and universities within the state of Utah. Students will answer questions about their demographic information, past experiences, and how they would respond to sample situations. From the data collected, we will conduct regression analyses and other basic descriptive statistics. This will provide us with the information necessary to establish connections between fear-based decisions and the various influences that may contribute to these decisions.
Approximately 30% of the students attending Utah Valley University (UVU) are first-generation college students, or first in their family to obtain a college education. Much of the literature on first-generation college students identifies the many roadblocks and challenges they face on their way to obtaining a college education. In our review of research on first-generation college students, we have yet to find literature that focuses on the parents and what it is like to be a parent of a first-generation college student, from the parents perspective. During this new experience for first-generation college students, both the parent and the student experience a change of culture, previously unconsidered opportunities, decisions, as well as a new set of emotions and financial obligations. This study’s purpose is to understand the lived experiences of parents of first-generation college students. The research method for this study is phenomenological where one-on-one qualitative interviews will be conducted with the parents who volunteer to participate in the study. Subjects are parents of Utah Valley University first-generation students who are preparing to graduate in less than 1 year allowing us to understand the experience parents went through as their children obtained access to, started, and succeeded while a student at UVU. It is anticipated that 30 parents will be interviewed and that data collection will stop when a saturation point is reached. Findings from this research will contribute to faculty, staff, and scholars working with first-generation college students to have an understanding of what these parents go through as they work with first-generation college students.
Christopher Neu, Trevor Alder, Brigham Young University Nonverbal communication or body language is a large part of how humans interact, especially in relationships. However, prior research has reported varying conclusions about if there is a relationship between nonverbal communication decoding(NCD) and marital satisfaction, and if there is, the strength of that relationship. We believe this is because of underlying moderators. Therefore, we hypothesized that empathy, self-worth, and sexual satisfaction would moderate the aforementioned relationship. We believe that empathy moderates this relationship because it provides incentive to decode and pay attention to a spouse’s body language. Similarly, sexual satisfaction and self worth would increase attention to body language both of one’s self as well as that of the partner and therefore moderate the relationship between NCD and marital satisfaction. We gathered responses from 500 participants through Amazon’s Mturk. We found that NCD was significantly related to marital abuse when sexual satisfaction was low, and additionally that NCD was related to marital interaction when empathy was low. All other relationships between NCD and marital satisfaction measures were insignificant.
This project will present personal ethnographic research, which is the investigation of a culture through thorough study of its members, from my time among the Himba, a remote native tribe in Namibia Africa. This project will help provide a different perspective on suffering so that Western cultures might obtain a more empathetic view toward different cultures and societies. This research will be most beneficial for humanitarian organizations that are working in third world countries. For many generations, humanitarian organizations have had an attitude that all third world countries are suffering and the only way to help them is to provide modern technology from more developed countries. There is a discontinuity between the ideas of these organizations and the desire and needs of the people they are helping. This project will help reinforce the idea that most of these third world countries are not suffering or helpless, but instead are in need of support to achieve their own goals. The majority of humanitarian projects have failed after the first couple years because of lack of planning. They have also failed because of the mentality that the aid providers are the saviors of these helpless societies. If the mentality changed to see these societies as people rather than lesser, underdeveloped societies, then more good would actually be accomplished. The way that the word 'suffering' is used disconnects people rather than connects them. Joel Robbins, in his recent published article, Beyond the suffering subject: toward an anthropology of the good, expressed the flaws of this perspective of suffering. I hope to elaborate on his idea and present practical approaches on how we and organizations should perceive suffering and support third world countries. Many humanitarian organizations use this idea of suffering to make a false empathy that unknowingly assigns these societies thoughts, beliefs, and behavior patterns that the organization has which the other society does not share. This new outlook would help people be empathetic towards third world countries and see the world from the point of view of that country so that they can receive the proper support that these countries need to achieve their goals.
The purpose of this project is to understand the influence and benefits of the Strengths Finder assessments and coaching in student leadership. This research focuses on the primary accounts of students and Strengths Finder coaches. This project will provide valuable information into possible avenues to strengthen student leadership teams through strengths analysis.
Within Psychology, there has recently been an influx of research involving Phinney’s theory of “Ethnic Identity Development.” This refers to the way in which youth and young adults acquire an individual self-concept that is largely dictated by their culture, and suggests that these stages of development are the same across cultures. Methodologies surrounding Ethnic Identity Development Theory rely most heavily on the use of surveys in order to gather data from various ethnic groups. While surveys and lab experiments may be able to provide reliability in testing, they do not entirely account for validity, especially when accounting for context-dependent phenomena such as culture or identity. Through conducting qualitative research among Hmong people in France and Thailand, I found that Hmong across generations do not follow the same line of ethnic identity development as proposed by Phinney, nor is the deeply complex construct of identity accounted for in the unilateral Ethnic Identity Development theory. Instead, I propose that the Life Course model is much better suited for studying identity development, as it is a more dynamic approach to studying human development surrounding identity as it occurs within varying cultural contexts.
ENP Abstract The purpose of this study was to analyze and help us better understand the use of Elaborative Noun Phrases (ENP) in typically developing children between the ages of four and seven. ENPs can be used as an indicator of literate language development. As children grow, their use of ENPs mature until they reach about age 11 at which point their use of ENPs plateaus as curriculum emphasis changes from narrative to expository discourse. In order to measure ENPs story retells and stories made up on the spot by the child are used. These stories typically include picture prompts to help the child create the story. Some evidence suggests that one detailed picture elicits greater productions of ENPs than a simple sequence of pictures. In this study the narratives of 42, 4 year olds, 57, 5 year olds, 68, 6 year olds and 93, 7 year olds who participated in the normative sample for the TNL-2, were used. Children were asked to produce stories in three different settings, a story retell after a clinician model, a story based on a picture sequence, and a story based on a picture. Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT) was used to transcribe these stories, which were then coded for ENP use. This coding included counting and analyzing the number of descriptors used before or after a noun. Phrases that only included a determiner and noun were coded as PRE1 and are referred to as simple designating noun phrases. Noun phrases that included a determiner as well as a modifying agent, such as a modifying noun or an adjective were coded as PRE2 and are called simple descriptive noun phrases. Complex descriptive noun phrases included two or more descriptors and a determiner before the noun and were coded as PRE3. Lastly complex noun phrases with post modification were coded as POST. These typically were seen through the use of prepositional phrases or clauses. Through this study we hope to gain a better understanding of how children use ENPs by analyzing the differences in ENP use both qualitatively and quantitatively. This will allow us to better serve and assess children with developmental language impairment.
In the Mountain West Census Region of the U.S., suicide rates are significantly higher than any other region in the U.S. The causes as to why have been sought after and studied numerous times throughout recent history. This study looks at religiosity and how it affects suicide rates by State in the Mountain West region. The importance of this particular study is that of prevention. Suicides can be prevented if the causes are made known. In this instance, more emotional counseling could be provided in areas with higher rates as well as more awareness about the effects of depression. The main goal of identification is prevention. Suicide rates by county were collected from the CDC website, and all Religiosity data was collected from the ARDA religious census of 2010. By using regression modeling, the effects of religiosity can be studied by state to determine whether or not there is a significant effect on suicide rates in that particular area. To provide a wider scope of just who and what it affects, other variables such as age group, congregation size, attendance and population were examined in regression models. After running regressions in each state and determining statistical significance, areas with a higher level of religiosity do indeed have a higher suicide rate than areas with lower religiosity. Higher attendance rates were significantly related to suicide rates, meaning that the more regular attendees an area had, the higher the suicide rate. Using these findings, we can make steps towards bringing more awareness in the necessary states about depression, anxiety, and the effects that they have on suicide rates. Prevention efforts can be increased and counseling can be provided. In todays society, religion can be a difficult subject for many, but the fact of the matter remains that it is in any way contributing to higher suicide rates, it needs to be addressed in a timely manner in order to save lives. Now speculation can be made about exactly why religion affects these rates, things such as pressure to act a certain way or to become a certain person. Feeling trapped if you do not live up to the standards shown around you, and many see suicide as the only way out. This need not be the case, and these issues can be changed and need to be changed based on the findings of this study.
Among the schools with men's basketball teams categorized as Division 1 teams by the NCAA, average attendance per game in the 2015-16 season varied from 436 at the lowest (Bryant University, Northeast Conference) to 23,361 (University of Kentucky, Southeastern Conference). There are many characteristics of both the team and the university or college that cause this wide range in their average attendances. The objective of this project is to explore some of the differences between universities and colleges that cause the disparities in the average attendance of their men's basketball games at home. In this study, I analyze the effects of some variables that represent the team's current success, some measure of their historical performance, the size of the school, and other variables that I believe are good indicators of the types of things that influence potential attendees' choices. I find that some of the most important factors relating to a team's attendance are their NCAA conference, their student body size, and how many times in recent years they have competed in the NCAA tournament.
It is well known that in some instances, only one scope relation is possible for a sentence, irrespective of the context (see Szabolcsi 2010 for constraints on scope). Von Fintel and Iatridou 2003 (vF&I) however, describe a novel restriction on scope the Epistemic Containment Principle. It involves epistemic modals (verbs that express the speaker’s level of certainty that something is true, e.g. may, might, must) and a quantifier subject. Consider the following scenario: You and a friend are standing in front of a student residence. In some of the rooms the light is on, in other rooms it is off. Every room is equipped with a special device that automatically switches off the light if a student leaves his/her room. Thus, we know that some students are home, because some lights are on. Your friend then says: (1) Every student may have left. vF&I’s central claim is that quantifiers cannot scope over epistemic modals—in (1), Every student and may respectively. For (1) to appear congruent with its context, the subject must be the element taking wide scope, though due to the ECP we cannot get access to this scope configuration which is why it fails to sound acceptable. The focus of my research is to investigate whether or not marked intonation on either the subject or the modal may provide access to this restricted scope configuration, an idea that was explicitly noted in vF&I 2003 (footnote 7). If marked intonation does have such an effect it would warrant revisiting our fundamental understanding of the interaction between the sound and meaning components of language known to linguists as PF (phonological form) and LF (logic form) respectively. Specifically, the intonation I am investigating involves two prosodic patterns: nuclear stress and the rise-fall contour with neutral intonation used as a control condition. I have created an online survey which asks respondents to give acceptability judgements of sentences similar to (6) on a Likert scale 1-5. The survey contains 12 items and 10 fillers. Each item contains one of five conditions, the type of prosody placed on either the modal or the subject. The ordering of items and fillers is varied across the subject pool to control for carry-over effects. We intend on collecting data from approximately 50 participants. Some statistical method, for example ANOVA, will be used to determine the existence of an effect.
Title: Poverty Simulation: Students’ Impactful Moments Authors: Gaye Ray, MS, FNP-C, PH-C, Debra K. Wing Maj. USAFR, NC, MSNED, RN, CNE, Mike McNeil, SN, Camry Shawcroft, SN Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore nursing students’ impactful moments during poverty simulation and identify aspects of the simulation that prompt these experiences. Background: 62 undergraduate nursing students participated in a poverty simulation as part of a required public and global health nursing course and wrote reflection papers about their experiences. During the 3.5-hour simulation, students are assigned participant roles similar to those experienced in real life low-income families. Students develop strategies to prioritize and meet their family’s basic needs, including food, housing, living expenses, school, employment, and healthcare. Unexpected life challenges occur throughout the simulation, including financial predicaments, illnesses, and job loss. Participants are expected to cope with such challenges, with limited time and resources, as they uphold obligations and continue to care for their families. Participants interact with simulated community resource to meet needs. Sites include: grocery stores, banks, employment and social services, schools, police stations, childcare, and healthcare facilities. Students participate in debrief sessions following the simulation. Method: Qualitative data from the reflection papers was analyzed. The first-cycle coding process identified and labeled student statements that elaborated upon impactful moments in the simulation. Using focused coding, a second-cycle coding process was used to identify the origins of the impactful moments. Finally, origins of the impactful moments were grouped and categorized according to similarity. Results: Completed analysis of the student reflection papers reveals the origins of meaningful experiences in the simulation arose from (1) the particular role played during the simulation, (2) community resource interaction, (3) illegal activities that occurred in the simulation, and (4) post-simulation debrief groups. Conclusion: Impactful moments elicited by the poverty simulation are pivotal in furthering nursing student’s understanding of health inequalities, resource barriers, and poverty as a social determinant of heath. Additionally, impactful moments help motivate nursing students to aid in the reduction of health disparities among low income individuals and families.
Often in public and civil discourse surrounding issues of sexual abuse, institutionally upheld power structures systematically discredit the testimonies of victims and inflate the credibility of the accused. Frequently, victims are offered less credibility as a knower or communicator of knowledge than their accused counterparts. By approaching this issue from the intersection of ethics and epistemology, I propose that we can better identify and understand the underlying structures that exist and influence the unfair treatment of the epistemic positions of victims and perpetrators. With help from Miranda Fricker’s model of “Epistemic Injustice” and Duncan Pritchard’s account of the epistemology of testimony, I argue that the unequal consideration of accounts of victims of abuse compared with their assailants is an issue of epistemic injustice through the devaluation of the knowledge of the victim. To better understand the application of this problem, I will apply this theoretical understanding of testimony and epistemic injustice to contemporary sexual assault and harassment investigation as well as the recent conversations and reform proposals of Title IX on college campuses.
Experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) directly affects the mental, emotional, sexual, and physical health of the victim. The purpose of this study is to examine the short- and long-term effectiveness of the University of Utah’s IPV curriculum for primary care resident physicians. Primary care residents participate in a paper or online self-administered survey in their first year (a pre-training survey - before they participated in the IPV training program) and third year in a residency program (a post-training survey - after they participated in the IPV training program). The survey includes demographic questions (e.g. specialty, gender, age), and the knowledge, attitude, and clinical behaviors related to IPV. As of October 12, 2017, 163 residents at the University of Utah Medical School participated in the pre-training survey. Less than 20 % of the participants (17.2%) agreed with the statement “I feel confident that I can make the appropriate referrals for IPV victims.” Only 1.2% of the participants were confident to identify patients who are victims of IPV. Half of the participants were comfortable discussing the topic of IPV with patients or the parents of patients. Nearly 90% of the participants selected agree or strongly agree that the abuse of women was a medical issue, and the other 10% selected neutral, disagree, or strongly disagree. Training residents in IPV may help them realize that IPV recognition is under their scope of practice as doctors, and that there is room for immense improvement in training and education within medical training.
Guo & Schneider (2016) explored different approaches to identifying grammatical impairments in 128 children developing typically (TL) and those with language impairments (LI) between the ages of 6 and 8. Their participants were 61 six-year-olds (50 TL, 11 LI), and 67 eight-year-olds (50 TL, 17 LI). The measures that they explored included: calculating the finite verb morphology composite (FVMC), the number of errors per C-unit (Errors/CU), and the percent of grammatical C-units (PGCUs) in narrative samples. Each outcome measure was evaluated for its sensitivity and specificity. They found that all three outcome measures provided acceptable diagnostic accuracy when applied to six-year-olds, but PCGUs were found to be the most accurate tool with eight-year-olds. The purpose of the current study was to analyze the narrative samples of 260 typically developing children ages 4-7 to determine typical scores for the previously listed grammatical measures at each age level. This knowledge may provide more information on the performance of typical children and how to accurately identify students with LI. This study extends the literature by testing whether the findings remain the same with addition data from children aged 6-7 and whether the findings extend to children aged 4 and 5 years. The participants in this study included 42 four-year-olds, 57 five-year-olds, 68 six-year-olds and 93 seven-year-olds. The participants were selected as part of the normative sample for the Test of Narrative Language-2. For the study, the children were asked to produce stories in three varying contexts. These contexts consisted of: a story retell after a model story, sequenced pictures were then provided for another story retell after a model, and lastly children were asked to produce a story based on a picture after a model. These stories were transcribed using Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT). The transcriptions were double coded for grammaticality by two separate research assistants. Reliability was calculated by a graduate research assistant. The utterances were designated as grammatical or ungrammatical. Ungrammatical utterances were coded for the type of grammatical error present. The same three grammaticality outcome measures used in Guo & Schneider (2016) were used in this study. Data analysis will include examination of each outcome measure by age. Conclusions and clinical implications will be discussed.
Children with Language Disorder tend to demonstrate significant difficulty using multiple clause sentences. They often have difficulty using relative clauses. Kim and O’Grady, (2015) compared 46 children ages 5;0 to 6;10 in their use of relative clauses. Findings revealed that children tended to favor subject relative clauses (i.e. the boy who has the bike is happy) over object relative clauses (i.e. the boy has a bike that is broken). Domsch et al., (2012) used conversational and narrative contexts to elicit discourse-level language from children to examine syntactic complexity for students with and without a history of late language emergence (LLE). They found that typically developing children outperformed children with a history of LLE in use of syntactically complex sentences during conversation, but not in narratives obtained from the contexts used in the standardized test (Domsch et. al, 2012). Our current study’s goal was to extend findings from previous research in typically developing children by using narratives as the context for eliciting and examining the use of complex syntax. We studied the syntactic complexity of narratives of 260 typically developing children ages 4 to 7. These children were given 3 narrative tasks during the TNL assessment which included retelling a story, composing a story from sequenced pictures, and producing a story from a single picture. All three tasks were used in order to explore potential differences in story contexts. The narratives were transcribed and coded by student researchers who were at least 90% reliable using the Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT; Miller, 2010). The syntactic complexity of these narratives was analyzed by coding for Subordination Index (SI) and the use of relative clauses. SI is a ratio of the number independent clauses to the number of C-units (i.e. independent main clauses and phrases/clauses subordinated to it) in each transcript. Subject and object relative clauses were identified and coded in each sample. It was expected that younger children would use fewer relative clauses than older children and prefer subject relative to object relative clauses. We hypothesized that children would use more complex syntax and relative clauses in sequenced scenes or retells as compared to those from a single picture. Implications for examining each context separately, rather than collapsing them are discussed. Data are discussed by age-group. Implications for how these data will inform our identification of students with language impairment by assessment of complex syntax will be discussed.
Nationally, 45% of pregnancies are unintended (Finer et al.) and these rates are disproportionately high for low-income women. As few health care providers assess reproductive planning and contraceptive needs outside of reproductive health visits, there is a missed opportunity to close the gap. This research aims to complete a needs assessment for contraceptive provision to support future clinical interventions and policy changes to meet this need for homeless women in Salt Lake City, and ultimately reduce rates of unintended pregnancy. This is being accomplished by administering surveys at Fourth Street Clinic, which serves the homeless community in downtown Salt Lake City, Utah. (Citation: Finer LB, Zolna MR. Declines in Unintended Pregnancy in the United States, 2008-2011. The New England journal of medicine 2016;374:843-52.)
Previous researchers have explained disproportionate minority contact (DMC) by utilizing two hypotheses. The first, differential treatment, is the theory that variations exist in policing whereby officers disproportionately focus on minority groups. The second, differential offense, is the theory that variations exist in patterns of offending whereby minority groups disproportionately place themselves within police focus. The current project involves a collaboration between a local police department and undergraduate students and faculty at a regional university to explore a heretofore underexplored explanation for DMC that we call differential civilian response. Differential civilian response is the theory that civilians disproportionately place minorities within police focus. This can occur when a civilian (such as a community member, a teacher, or a store owner) contacts the police more frequently in situations involving minority individuals than they would in situations involving other people. To determine if differential civilian response is having a measurable impact on levels of DMC, specific variables will be abstracted from a set number of police reports. The variables will then be coded and analyzed. The percentage of minority contacts will be compared to the percentage of minority in the applicable population to determine extent of DMC. If DMC is identified, then levels of proactive, officer-initiated contacts will be compared to levels of reactive, civilian-initiated contacts to determine how this element has affected the levels of DMC. By examining this previously underexplored explanation for DMC rates, findings from this study have the potential to enhance community education efforts, influence police training practices, and aid future researchers in understanding how civilian bias impacts rates of DMC within communities.
The relationship between philosophy and Marxism has been a complicated one. This relationship has changed and evolved overtime, beginning with Marx and continuing to this day in Chinese academia. What has influenced this relationship? How do Marxist Leninist states treat philosophy and philosophers? How have theorists interacted with philosophy and how has philosophy influenced Marxist theories?
Britain’s Role in the Unification of South Africa and the South Africa Act in the Early 20th Century
Madelaine Campbell, Brigham Young University This research looks at Britain’s release of her former colonies during the 20th century, and the motivations behind their actions. South Africa moved towards unification in 1908 with Britain’s support in the drafting of the South Africa Act and Lord Selbourne’s involvement in the National Convention. By examining original communications within the British government regarding South Africa and the parliamentary papers surrounding the South Africa Act the British motivation towards its former colonies becomes apparent. In this case study of South Africa’s movement towards independence, we see that Britain wanted to give as much control to the South African delegates as possible without relinquishing their hold on the natural resources and strong leadership that South Africa provided. In their quest to maintain a good relationship with South Africa, Britain overlooked some of the damaging decisions made by the South African leaders which led to racial and class conflict in South Africa later, during the rest of the 20th century.
Africa has seen increased alcohol consumption and public health problems and alcohol has been identified as the “leading contributor to the burden of disease in Sub-Saharan Africa” (Limaye et. al. 2014). Malawi, a small, landlocked country in Sub-Saharan Africa, is at a pivotal moment with potential for progress as it just passed a National Alcohol Policy through Parliament this March 2017 (Malawi 2017). Much of the alcohol produced and purchased in Malawi is done through the informal economy, with women typically brewing alcohol as a means of economic sustainment. The Malawian policy document admits that “the informal production of alcohol offers huge health risks as it is hardly monitored to assure quality control in terms of alcohol volume and amount of impurities (Malawi 2017). Informal alcohol is often difficult to track, and the World Health Organization has little information on the production and usage of informal alcohol. The WHO stresses the importance of further study to understand both the composition and production of informal alcohol, along with its regulation, both legally and culturally, in low-income countries (Limaye et al. 2014 & WHO). As little research has been done with traditional brewers as the target population, I conducted interviews the summer of 2017 in Dowa District, Malawi, with 20 traditional brewers. This number constitutes the largest number of brewers interviewed in any research endeavor. I partnered with two local Malawian NGOs, The School of Agriculture for Family Independence and Drug Fight Malawi for local expertise advise and logistical assistance. The interviews included both quantitative and qualitative questions and was focused on understanding the components and brewing process that traditional brewers utilized. Other interview sections included alcohol selling, community alcohol usage, and personal/family alcohol consumption. This research found patterns in both alcohol production and consumption in this area of Malawi, granted understanding about the community position of local brewers, and identified local brewers as a key stakeholder in the attempts to stem the harmful effects of alcohol use.
Nationwide, 77% of inmates are rearrested within five years of their release, suggesting that they are not being effectively rehabilitated while in prison. Further, 64% of prisoners have a diagnosed mental illness, yet psychological care is often not available. Together, these data suggest that the United States prison system is not sufficiently meeting the needs of this vulnerable population. Previous research has suggested that insecure attachment styles and high rates of childhood adversity are independent predictors of negative outcomes in adulthood, one outcome being the presence of mental illness. However, the extent to which this is true of those who are imprisoned is not yet known. The aim of this research project, which is still under development, is to examine attachment styles and adverse childhood experiences among inmates located in a prison in Southern Utah. It is predicted that the majority of inmates will demonstrate insecure attachment and high levels of childhood adversity, both of which may have contributed to the high rates of mental illness within this population. Understanding if insecure attachment styles and adverse childhood experiences are highly prevalent in prison populations would allow us to design specific interventions for said population. Developing interventions with prisoner attachment styles and childhood adversity in mind may produce more impactful intervention results, which could in turn, significantly contribute to lower rates of recidivism.
Dialectic tensions pressure Southeast Asian highland minorities to conform to the demands of modern societies. One of these tensions among highland cultures today is created by conversions to Christianity. Specifically, Hmong communities in Northern Thailand are experiencing this religious change to a significant extent. Their traditional religious practices include a repertoire of ancestral and spiritual rituals influenced by Taoist and Confucian ritual systems; therefore, the influx of conversions to Protestant Christianity in Thailand today challenges these traditional systems, both intimately and on a larger scale. I propose that this shift in belief demonstrates not a complete conversion of belief, but rather a significant addition to already existing morals and ideologies. My research among Hmong in Northern Thailand provides evidence which suggests a plurality of belief visible in practice, speech, and conversion. Belonging to one religious congregation does not necessarily imply an inner loyalty to one specific belief or set of values. This research is vital to the growing field of the anthropology of Christianity because it reveals the plural nature of belief among the Hmong, and this pattern can be seen in the growing tumult of changing belief among other nations as well. My research outlines the importance of belief as expanding, built upon by new notions over time, rather than a static notion which changes dramatically because of crucial events such as conversion.
Being an effective English Language teacher entails specific qualities. Understanding culture, English language, and the backgrounds of the students they teach are some of the qualities that first come to mind. An effective tutor for international students must hold similar qualities to ensure student learning. Students Helping English Languages Learners (SHELL) Program is a unique tutoring program for international students that provides current Elementary Education Program students the opportunity to experience both roles. As students, they study in the ESL endorsement courses which assists them to be an effective classroom teacher. The knowledge and skills acquired in the ESL endorsement courses provide the ability for the tutors to implement efficient and appropriate teaching strategies for the specific individual they are tutoring. As the tutors analyze their experiences, they learn that they are negotiating their identities as "teachers." They realize they are constantly changing and renegotiating who they are as teachers. Based on the foundations of qualitative research, this presentation will explore the phenomenon of identity transformation as the tutors interact closely with the international students.
As the most abused legal drug in the world, the prevalence of alcohol addiction indicates a need for change and the discovery of the processes that will enable researchers to break the cycle of addiction. Current dogma holds that dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) within the mesolimbic pathway is rewarding. Studying the effects of drugs on DA release sheds light on the mechanism of release and the possible discovery of treatment that might aid in the prevention and treatment of addiction. The relative dearth of animal studies conducted in females has led NIH to require researchers to consider sex as a variable in their studies in order to elucidate key sex related differences. However, despite these mandates, research has not been conducted on the effects of ethanol throughout the menstrual cycle. In human females, Ryback has determined that chronic alcohol consumption does disrupt the menstruation cycle in humans. (Ryback, 1977). This project’s purpose is to determine how the effects of alcohol on DA release in the NAc differ throughout the menstrual cycle thus improving our understanding of the neural substrates of alcohol addiction in women. Preliminary data has shown that while males show enhanced DA release by ethanol, females are characterized by a biphasic response consisting of enhancement followed by inhibition. Microdialysis trials are being employed in which a guide cannula is implanted in the NAc. A probe is inserted into the guide cannula and samples are taken by flowing artificial cerebral spinal fluid (aCSF) through the probe in order to collect dialysate samples every twenty minutes. After a baseline is established, ethanol is injected and samples are taken for the next three hours. Analysis is done using an HPLC to preform electrochemical separations. Using a variety of alcohol doses will create a dose response curve for alcohol in each phase of the menstruation cycle. The comparison of dose response curves throughout each phase will determine changes in alcohol mediated DA release. It is expected that preliminary conclusions can be reached regarding how DA release in response to alcohol is affected throughout proestrus, estrus, and diestrus in the female menstruation cycle. It is hoped that these conclusions will lead to better treatments for both men and women in conditions such as alcohol use disorder. Ryback, R. S. (1977). Chronic alcohol consumption and menstruation. JAMA, 238(20), 2143-2143.
Acquired brain injury (ABI) is defined as damage to the brain done after birth with no association to a person’s genetic background (World Health Organization, 1996). ABI may result in temporary or life-lasting damage to one’s physical, social and psychological abilities, which can significantly impact a child’s reintegration to their community (Holbrook, 2007). According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), almost half a million (473,947) emergency visits due to ABI are made annually by children between the ages of 0 to 14 years (n.d.). Once these children leave the hospital, often after an extended stay, they are faced with needing to reintegrate into their communities. Despite the prevalence of pediatric brain injury and the challenges it presents, there is not much research on the connections between outpatient services, family systems and community reintegration. Yet such an understanding is critical to develop effective reintegration plans and processes for children with brain injuries and their families. The study will take a broad approach that helps identify the needs of families with children with ABI. This will be obtained by interviewing caregivers of children who have an ABI. Daily diaries will also be given to caregivers to submit, the option of a daily diaries of children will be given if the ABI is not severe and their age exceeds 5 years. The long-term goal is to construct effective and practical intervention systems that will enable families to reintegrate into their communities more effectively.
Hannah Grow, Jamie Easler, Nora Evans, Brigham Young University Background: Numerous stressors are associated with parenting, and many of these stressors are intensified when the mother is the sole caregiver and provider of her family. Further stressors are experienced when children have disabilities. Single mothers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and single mothers of children with Down Syndrome (DS) may experience parenting differently than couples of children with ASD or DS. Aims: The present study examined differences between single mothers of children with ASD and single mothers of children with DS in the following areas: (a) socio-economic status, (b) maternal adaptation as measured by hassles, uplifts, caregiver burden, and depression, and (c) respite care. Methods: Participants were 330 non-cohabitating mothers with at least one child with ASD or DS (ASD n = 201; DS n = 129). The mothers completed a survey that asked questions pertaining to their daily lives. Results: More families with children with ASD qualified for free/reduced lunch than families with children with DS. In the areas of hassles, caregiver burden, and depression, single mothers of children with DS had lower scores, suggesting that they have an easier time caring for their children than mothers of children with ASD. In the category of uplifts, there were no significant differences between mothers of children of ASD and mothers of children with DS. Also, no significant differences existed between mothers in the survey who received respite care and mothers who did not. Conclusions: These findings suggest that although both mothers of children with DS or ASD need additional emotional support, even more support is needed for mothers of children with ASD.
Spatial and Temporal Preposition Comparison Alexander J. Cipro Prepositions are hard to define and often have multiple definitions, which are fairly abstract. In short, a preposition describes the relationship of a phrase or element to another phrase or element in a sentence. A phrase is a group of words working as a single unit in a sentence, such as “a man” or “running fast”. In the sentence “The cat is in the yard.” The preposition ‘in’ describes the relation between “the cat” and “the yard”. The two prepositions I will be looking at are ‘in’ and ‘within’. I will be using the definitions from Merriam-Webster’s 11th collegiate edition. Spatially, ‘in’ and ‘within’ are defined: ‘in’ (a function word to indicate inclusion, location or position within limits) and ‘within’ (used as a function word to indicate enclosure or containment). With prepositions having such similar definitions and uses is there an environmental reason we don't have just one of these preposition or is it purely a stylistic difference? Thus far I have found the 'in' seems to be generally acceptable when dealing with full or partial containment, while 'within' seems to only be acceptable under certain conditions. 'In' appears to be generally accepted as long as the container is supporting the object in some way. Example: "The apple is in the bowl" sounds much better than "the apple is within the bowl", but imagine if the apple I was mentioning was atop other apples and sitting above the lip of the bowl. 'In' is still an acceptable description, while 'within' goes from a marked sentence to an ungrammatical one. Depending on which of them is used with plural nouns, they can redefine the scope of the sentence. Example: "There is unrest in the tribe" vs "There is unrest within the tribe". The use of 'in' has a unifying connotation as if the tribe in a state of unrest due to an outside entity. While the use of 'within' gives a sense that the unrest is coming from the tribe itself. Using BYU's Corpus of Contemporary American English, I found both 'in' and 'within' dropped in frequency after 1994. While 'in' seemed to level off between 1995-2009, 'within' continued to decline until 2010 where it rose 19% in frequency, compared to 'in' which only had a 17% increase. Data analysis will be added after publishing the survey. The survey is pending IRB approval
As urban populations throughout the world continue to grow, a deeper understanding of water use behavior and the performance of water- saving fixtures is needed to plan for future water demand and ensure adequate provision of safe and clean water. Many residential water use studies have been conducted, but fewer studies have focused on identifying patterns of water use for specific socio-demographic groups or for specific water end uses (e.g., toilets, showers, etc.). Our current understanding of the water saving potential of fixtures that require voluntary action to decrease water usage such as dual-flush toilets is limited. Most current methods of metering water usage are focused on providing information for billing purposes and typically involve infrequent measurements (e.g., monthly) that cannot support inference of the timing of water usage patterns, identification of specific end uses, and potential opportunities for water conservation. It is also difficult to identify demographically and structurally homogeneous study areas for which data can be collected to characterize the water use of specific groups given that most residential areas or multi-family residential buildings house diverse populations within and may contain similar water-saving mechanisms between buildings. In this study, we quantified differences in toilet usage and its associated water consumption between men and women and between buildings both equipped and unequipped with dual-flush toilets by collecting high frequency water use data. Data were collected within two residential buildings segregated by gender and in two buildings similar in structure and appliances but differing in possessing dual-flush toilets versus single-volume, flushometer toilets. We used simple disaggregation methods to determine differences in the volume and timing of toilet usage by gender, volume of water consumed by both normal toilets and dual-flush toilets, and the proportion of low-flushes to high flushes before and after the residents of the buildings were exposed to an informational campaign tailored to conserving water. These results provide a greater understanding of water demand through toilet usage by gender, identified structural changes that could be made to conserve water, and may assist water managers in more accurately projecting future water needs.
Biomass contributes to several renewable energy technologies. This project will explore the use of fast pyrolysis to produce fuels and marketable materials in Malawian villages. Currently, the Malawian people harvest firewood from the forests, which is a major contributor to deforestation. Furthermore, they convert some of it to charcoal with about 10-15% efficiency to sell to city dwellers. The project will enable herbaceous fuels to replace wood, increase charcoal yields and create new products. Firewood and charcoal produce smoke and carbon monoxide (CO) that compromises the villagers’ health. This project will address deforestation problems, improve sustainability, decrease health hazards and improve the local economy. This project will increase the yield by a process called pyrolysis. Fast pyrolysis produces bio-oil in addition to charcoal from biomass. This project will investigate ways that fast pyrolysis can be implemented, using cornstover or any other accessible biomass such as sausage fruit and plants. We hope to develop a prototype fast-pyrolysis experiment that will be replicable in environments like the villages of Malawi. Prior experiments indicate that corn stalk can form bio-oil with up to 60% yield under laboratory conditions (Pittman 8). We will explore ways of doing this under Malawian village conditions. The research is relevant because it will help improve the energy yield from biomass, decrease deforestation, decrease health effects from using wood, and improve the village economy. The fast-pyrolysis process produces pyrolysis oil that that can be used as a fuel or sold. It also produces charcoal that can be substituted for wood charcoal or can be used to reintroduce carbon nutrients back in the soil. The project will address whether fast-pyrolysis process could be implemented specifically in Malawi, how that oil could be used for the benefit of the people, and if this solution can be extended to other subsistence farmer cultures. Long term, this process could open up business opportunities in the villages. The revenue from that could be used to improve livestyles in the village. The process, if implemented, will help empower the villages, will help educate and encourage sustainable projects in many other villages. That is the exciting aspect; the opportunity to not only help one village but to affect multiple villages starting with one or two. After reviewing the resources listed below and with my personal experience in Malawi, I am very excited and hopeful about the research.
In the early twentieth century, Charlotte Mannya Maxeke was the most eminent female leader in the South African resistance movement. As a prominent female member of the South African Native National Congress, the founder of the Bantu Women’s League in 1918, and the first black female South African to earn a bachelor’s degree in 1901, Maxeke labored unceasingly in the struggle for equal rights for both black Africans and women. Despite her leading role, relatively little scholarly research has focused on Maxeke and her life. The first dedicated biography of Maxeke was not published until 2016 by South African journalist Zubeida Jaffer. Among the great deal of scholarly work dealing with the history of the women’s resistance in South Africa, Maxeke’s contributions have only been lightly explored, leaving a great deal of Maxeke’s activism and legacy unexplored. The aim of the research was to use Maxeke’s own words to analyze her personal beliefs and construct a nuanced narrative of Maxeke’s intentions as an African woman as she struggled for justice and equality. Although Maxeke advocated for women’s rights and equal treatment for black South Africans, her Christian faith played a leading role in shaping her intentions for South Africa. Maxeke served selflessly to promote the ideas of dignity, family values, and faith in society. While Maxeke’s Christian emphasis often led to disconnect between her goals and those of other South African feminists, her position as a champion of women’s rights is undisputed. Ultimately Charlotte Maxeke’s life illustrates the variety of perspectives and goals within both women’s and African’s struggles for liberation in the twentieth century. To construct a narrative of Charlotte Maxeke’s intentions, research was undertaken to find her own words. The time period of the research spanned from the formation of the South African Native National Congress in 1912 to Maxeke’s death in 1939, focusing on sources from within the South African Colony. Using Newspaper articles written by Maxeke herself from Umteteli Wa Bantu and Abantu Batho, transcripts of Maxeke’s speeches, and meeting minutes from the SANNC and Bantu Women’s League, a clear picture of Maxeke’s motivations and contribution to the resistance movement was constructed. The sources were analyzed with the context of concurrent events in mind to understand the effect that oppressive state policies and resistance efforts had on Maxeke’s intentions and emphases as a leader.
The purpose of this meta-analysis is to assess the degree to which multicultural competency impacts the effectiveness of psychological interventions of culturally diverse clients. As a construct, multicultural competence refers to the professional skill sets that promotes efficacious interventions of clientele with diverse ethnic, racial, and cultural backgrounds. Research has clearly demonstrated that disparities exists in terms of access, utilization, and overall outcomes when therapies are applied to culturally diverse patients. It is the goal of this meta-analysis to provide an empirical basis for clinical practice, future research, and methods that effectively meet the needs of these minority populations. We identified 27 studies containing data on 3,314 clients’ experiences in mental health treatments as a function of their therapists’ level of multicultural competence. The studies were evenly divided between published articles (52%) and unpublished dissertations (48%), with the bulk of the research being conducted after the year 2000 (93%). Three aspects of client treatment were considered: (a) client perceptions of therapists and treatments; (b) client participation in treatment; and (c) client outcomes (i.e., symptom reduction). We analyzed outcomes across these three aspects of client treatment separately and as an aggregate statistic. The result of the random effects weighted correlation with therapist multicultural competence was r = .57, with differences among these three types of outcomes reaching statistical significance (Q = 13.3, p = .001). An important factor that moderated the association was the measure used to assess multicultural competency, considering its respective psychometric properties. The distribution of effect sizes did not indicate that a publication bias affected the analysis of the data. When competencies are measured by the client, the results indicate that client participation and client outcomes significantly improve as a function of therapists’ multicultural competency. Although the overall variance is relatively moderate, it is comparable to other known predictors of change in therapeutic settings.
Many people believe in electing a president based on who that president will nominate for the Supreme Court, and what conservative/liberal values that justice will help preserve. What we have noticed is that, throughout time, people's perceptions of what Supreme Court justices will do and what they actually do don't always line up. On a seemingly polarized issue, such as abortion, many times conservative nominated judges vote in favor of abortion and liberally nominated judges often vote against, or, in other words, or are more neutral than most people may think. We have outlined the surrounding news stories and the general populous' perceptions of abortion that surrounded landmark cases on the topic, and then how each justice voted and why.
The Play and Development Study Jake Rowley, Hollie Roper, & Dannelle Larsen-Rife Dixie State University Play is essential to growth and development across the lifespan as it benefits mental and physical health. Throughout nature, play behavior is observed among animals and humans as a necessity for development and survival. Although play has been associated with optimism, curiosity, progressive mastery, self-regulation, imaginative problem-solving, and increased perseverance, play is increasingly diminished in the United States. Many researchers and clinical practitioners have mentioned the effect of play deprivation and developmental problems, but play deprivation is understudied at the current time with limited findings to support theories about play deprivation. The present study examines the effects of play on social and emotional development in children. Lower levels of play and fewer opportunities to play were negatively associated with delinquent behaviors. This study is the beginning of research of how play deprivation affects people’s lives. The problem of play deprivation and the effects it has on young people who were deprived needs to be researched in the future to try to find interventions that may help them with the experiences they missed due to lack of play in their lives.
This paper considers how George Saunders creates empathy in his fiction writing and how he attempts to apply that empathy to polarized U.S. politics. Saunders has advocated for increased empathy in politics through a return to literature and the arts. He creates empathy in his fiction by pursuing specificity. Lending nuance to characters guides readers toward an empathetic understanding; specific details transform characters from "someone other" to "someone more like me." Politics, on the other hand, relies on vague generalities and paints the "other side" with broad, negative strokes. It is difficult to create empathy in today's divisive political landscape. My research considers whether or not it is possible to transfer the creation of empathy from the page to the political arena. I examine Saunders's 2017 novel Lincoln in the Bardo in comparison with his pre-election New Yorker essay, "Who Are All These Trump Supporters?" I argue that while Saunders's creation of empathy is in full form in his short fiction and novel, his practical application fails during the 2016 presidential election.
Gender and Religion in a Shifting Social Landscape: Final Phase Anglo-Saxon Mortuary Practices, 600-700 A.D
I discuss seventh-century East Anglian mortuary practices, juxtaposing the use of grave goods and human osteology to see if there is a distinct gender role division during this time of social and religious change. I examine graves of different statuses to see if this change occurs at different classes, as well as a religious burial site (Westfield Farm) to see if there was a distinct differentiation in monasticism. The sites I include in this paper are Edix Hill, Westfield Farm, Melbourn, and Trumpington, with mention of Bloodmoor Hill in the discussion. My research in this field is ongoing, which will be mentioned in the discussion, as well as a synthesis of the sites previously mentioned. My conclusions summarize the gender-indicative grave goods and gender-dividing arthropathies mentioned below. In addition, it places my work in the wider context of current research being done on this topic, and the possible future implications of my work.
ÛÏYou Need to Stop for a Minute, Just Listen to What I’m Saying:Û A Preliminary Report on Perceived Parental Support in Adolescents with ADHD
Erin Kaseda, Brigham Young University Background: It is estimated that between 5-10% of children and adolescents in the United States have been diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). For adolescents with ADHD, parent-child relationships experience increased conflict and poorer parenting practices. Interpersonal difficulties among both peers and family members put children with ADHD at risk for comorbid disorders, including depression and anxiety. Very little research has been done on children’s own perception of parental support or on the strength of parent’s marital quality as mediating factors on the negative symptomology of ADHD. The project will bridge this gap in the current literature. Methods: 10 adolescents aged 14-19 (M=17, N= 7 female, 3 male) with an official diagnosis of ADHD completed surveys and participated in a semi-structured interview. Participants were asked questions about self-control in school and in home settings, how their relationship with their parents influence their self-control, and their overall perceptions of their parent-child relationships. The interviews were transcribed and coded for factors that improve or hinder adolescents’ comfort in confiding in or sharing their feelings with their parents. Results: Participants were mostly white (50%) or Latino/a (40%) and from middle to high income families (100%). When asked how comfortable they felt sharing their feelings with or confiding in their parents, 33% of subjects reported feeling very comfortable, 40% somewhat comfortable, and 27% as not comfortable. When asked who they tend to go to for advice or support, 30% of subjects reported that there is no one that they are likely to go to. Participants also reported on specific actions their parents take that make it more difficult for them to confide in them. Responses included, ÛÏI can’t tell them the things I feel guilty aboutÛ_it’s scary;Û ÛÏIf they give me advice that I think [was] a little bit too judgmental, I’ll probably not come back to them;Û and ÛÏThere’s just kind of a difference in perspective.Û Conclusions: Understanding adolescents’ own perception of parental support and factors that make it difficult for them to confide in their parents has significant potential for clinicians in creating family-based interventions and therapies for adolescents with ADHD. Additionally, the finding that a third of subjects do not have peers or other adults that they feel comfortable going to for support is significant for school-based interventions. Further research needs to be done on the differences in social network size between adolescents with ADHD and their typically developing peers.
Converting Gendered Expectations: Critiques of "Traditional" Gender Roles among Protestant and Seventh-Day Adventist Hmong
Stephanie Parsons, Brigham Young University Based on three months of ethnographic field work in a Hmong community in Northern Thailand where approximately 90% of the community converted to one of two Christian sects (Protestant and Seventh-Day Adventist), I analyze changing ideas about gender and gender roles within this community. I document circulating discourses about how gendered expectations are different in this ÛÏnewÛ Christian society, as opposed to the ÛÏoldÛ ritual system of traditional Hmong culture. Specifically, I document an emerging Christian feminist discourse that frames Christian gendered expectations as liberating for women. These discourses are especially interesting given the generally more conservative nature of these sects of Christianity. Thus, this analysis will demonstrate how Christian Hmong people in Thailand have incorporated feminist discourse into a conservative, even patriarchal, Christian framework. I compare my findings to other anthropologists who document similar trends in seemingly Û÷conservative’ contexts (Mahmood 2005; Menon 2002).